The Best Preserved Medieval Castles in Europe: A Journey through History

Europe is renowned for its rich history, and one of the most iconic symbols of its medieval past is its magnificent castles.

These grand fortresses, with their imposing walls, towers, and battlements, evoke a sense of awe and wonder, transporting visitors to a bygone era of knights, kings, and battles.

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While many castles across Europe have fallen into ruins over the centuries, there are several that have stood the test of time and remain exceptionally well-preserved, providing a fascinating glimpse into medieval life.

In this article, we will explore some of the best preserved medieval castles in Europe, each with its unique story, architectural splendor, and historical significance.

Edinburgh Castle –  Scotland

Perched dramatically atop an extinct volcanic rock in the heart of Edinburgh, Scotland, Edinburgh Castle is a formidable fortress that has stood for over 1,000 years. The castle has served as a royal residence, a military stronghold, and a symbol of Scottish national identity.

The Edinburgh Castle - Probably the best Castle in Scotland
The Edinburgh Castle has remained one of the most recognised symbols of Scottish royal authority during the medieval period

Its well-preserved structures include the 12th-century St. Margaret’s Chapel, the oldest building in Edinburgh; the Great Hall, with its stunning hammer-beam ceiling; and the 15th-century Royal Palace, with its exquisite interiors.

The castle also houses the Scottish Crown Jewels and the Stone of Destiny, which were used in the coronation of Scottish monarchs.

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Carcassonne – France

Located in the Languedoc region of France, Carcassonne is a remarkable medieval fortress that has been beautifully preserved. Its fortified walls, towers, and double ring of ramparts date back to the Roman times and were further fortified in the 13th century.

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The castle’s impressive defenses, including its drawbridge, barbican, and battlements, offer a glimpse into medieval military architecture. Within the walls, visitors can explore the Ch√Ęteau Comtal, a well-preserved medieval castle that houses a museum showcasing the castle’s history and the life of its inhabitants.

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Medieval Castles French Castle Carcassonne

Warwick Castle – England

Nestled on the banks of the River Avon in Warwickshire, England, Warwick Castle is one of the best-preserved medieval castles in England. Originally built by William the Conqueror in 1068, the castle was expanded over the centuries and played a significant role in English history.

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Today, visitors can explore the castle’s towers, ramparts, and interiors, including the State Rooms with their opulent decorations, the grand Great Hall, and the medieval armory. Warwick Castle also hosts jousting tournaments, falconry displays, and other medieval-themed events, offering a unique immersive experience.

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Bran Castle – Romania

Famously known as “Dracula’s Castle,” Bran Castle is located in the Transylvania region of Romania and is one of the most well-preserved medieval castles in Eastern Europe.

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This imposing fortress perched on a rocky promontory dates back to the 14th century and is associated with the fictional character of Count Dracula from Bram Stoker’s novel.

The castle’s eerie towers, secret passages, and medieval furnishings create an atmospheric setting, offering a glimpse into the history and legends of the region. Bran Castle also hosts various cultural events, exhibitions, and performances, making it a popular tourist destination.

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Hohensalzburg Fortress – Austria

Dominating the skyline of Salzburg, Austria, Hohensalzburg Fortress is one of the largest fully preserved medieval fortresses in Europe. Built in the 11th century, the castle was expanded over the centuries and served as a residence, military stronghold, and prison.

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Its mighty walls, towers, and courtyards offer breathtaking panoramic views of Salzburg and the surrounding mountains. Visitors can explore the castle’s various rooms, including the Prince’s Apartments, the Fortress Museum, and the Golden Chamber with its exquisite decorations.

Hohensalzburg Fortress also hosts concerts, performances, and events throughout the year, adding to its cultural and historical significance.

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Malbork Castle – Poland

Located in northern Poland, Malbork Castle is one of the largest brick castles in the world and is an impressive example of medieval Gothic architecture. Built in the 13th century by the Teutonic Knights, the castle served as their headquarters and a seat of power.

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Its massive walls, towers, and courtyards are beautifully preserved, and visitors can explore the castle’s various chambers, including the Grand Refectory, the Grand Master’s Palace, and the Chapel of St. Anne. Malbork Castle also hosts various cultural events and exhibitions, showcasing its rich history and heritage.

Segovia Castle Spain

Located in the historic town of Segovia, Spain, Segovia Castle is an iconic landmark that has stood for over 800 years.

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The castle’s impressive ramparts, towers, and drawbridge offer a glimpse into medieval military architecture, while its elegant interiors, including the Hall of the Kings, the Throne Room, and the Chapel of St. John, showcase the castle’s grandeur and beauty.

Visitors can also enjoy stunning views of Segovia and the surrounding countryside from the castle’s towers and ramparts.

Chillon Castle – Switzerland

Located on the shores of Lake Geneva in Switzerland, Chillon Castle is a magnificent medieval fortress that has been beautifully preserved. Its picturesque location, surrounded by mountains and water, adds to its charm and allure.

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The castle’s various rooms, including the Great Hall, the Chapel, and the Dungeon, offer a fascinating glimpse into medieval life and history. Visitors can also explore the castle’s courtyards, towers, and underground chambers, including the famous “oubliette,” a dark and dank dungeon where prisoners were left to die.

Cesky Krumlov Castle – Czech Republic:

Located in the charming town of Cesky Krumlov in the Czech Republic, Cesky Krumlov Castle is a stunning example of medieval architecture and design. Built in the 13th century, the castle served as a residence for various noble families over the centuries, and its interiors reflect their tastes and styles.

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Visitors can explore the castle’s various rooms, including the Renaissance Hall, the Chapel of St. George, and the Royal Apartments. The castle’s extensive gardens, fountains, and terraces are also a sight to behold, offering a peaceful escape from the hustle and bustle of the town.


Europe’s best-preserved medieval castles offer a window into a fascinating and tumultuous era in history. These grand fortresses, with their imposing walls, towers, and battlements, reflect the ingenuity, creativity, and resilience of the people who built them.

Whether you’re a history buff, an architecture enthusiast, or a fan of fantasy and legends, these castles are sure to leave a lasting impression. By exploring these best-preserved medieval castles in Europe, you can take a journey through time, immersing yourself in the beauty, mystery, and grandeur of the medieval world.