There were many types of garments that were worn with medieval chainmail or plate armour such as the Aketon, Surcoat and Tabard Read more about the Armour Clothing A to Z List *Non Metal >>
Breastplate armour had many advantages for the wearer, protecting vital organs such as the heart on the battlefield Read more about the Breastplate Armor >>
The Byzantine Army was highly organised and efficient and was heavily armoured with even the horses being decked in elaborate armour Read more about the Byzantine Armour >>
Carolingian Body Armour was expensive and only the wealthy could afford it, however most Carolingian Soldiers helmets and shields were inexpensive and common. Read more about the Carolingian Armour >>
Chainmail Armour was improved and adapted to the needs of medieval knights and Soldiers and had to keep up with weaponry advancements Read more about the Chainmail A to Z List >>
Medieval chain mail offered Medieval soldiers Knights excellent protection that was more flexible and much cheaper than medieval plate armour. Most medieval chainmail was made using the 4 to 1 links method. Read more about the Chainmail Armor >>
Chainmail was typically worn because the medieval knights believed they could take the blunt wound but needed to guard against piercings. Read more about the Coif *Chainmail >>
The Doublet was a piece of clothing that was usually worn under Plate Armour. The Doublet help to make Plate Armour more comfortable and bearable to wear Read more about the Doublet >>
Greenwich armour was produced at the royal armoury at Greenwich which was established by the Tudor monarch Henry VIII Read more about the Greenwich Armour *Post Medieval Period >>
The hauberk was usually constructed with a huge quantity of metal rings that were intertwined together into a shirt-like fashion. The intertwining of the hoops also gave the hauberk its flexibility. Read more about the Hauberk *Chainmail Shirt >>
The Holy Roman Empire was a very advanced military society that had a thriving armour production industry, Holy Roman Soldiers wore Gothic and Maximilian plate armour Read more about the Holy Roman Armour >>
Armour for a medieval knights horse was very expensive and the most essential part was the chamfron which protected the horses head Read more about the Horse Armour >>
Learn How to Make Chainmail using different construction methods, the most popular way to make chainmail was using the 4-in-1 ring sequence Read more about the How to Make Chainmail >>
Learn about the term "Knight in Shining Armour", what does "Knight in Shining Armour" mean and where did this phrase originate from Read more about the Knight in Shining Armour >>
Lamellar Armour is a very distinctive armour that was worn in medieval times, it look similar to scale armour but had a different construction and had many advantages Read more about the Lamellar Armour >>
Maximilian armour came to be used at a time when artillery weapons were becoming increasingly popular in European battlefields Read more about the Maximilian Armour >>
The Basinect and the Great Helm were two very popular Helmets designs in medieval times. Read more about the Medieval Helmets – c. 500 – c. 1500 >>
Medieval shields protected and shielded soldiers in battle from close combat and ranged attack weapons like arrows and swords. Read more about the Medieval Shields >>
Norman Soldiers were very well prepared for battle and were protected by Helm Helmets, Norman Shields that were Kite Shaped and Mail Armour Read more about the Norman Armour *1060 – 1200 >>
Plate armour was introduced to counter the increasingly advanced weaponry of the medieval period, plate armour was added to chain mail and then full plate armour was worn by medieval knights later in the medieval period. Read more about the Plate Armour >>
Comprehensive list of medieval plate armor parts worn by medieval knights and soldiers Read more about the Plate Armour A to Z List >>
Anglo Saxons mainly fought on the ground and used shields and helmets for protection Read more about the Saxon Armour >>
Scale Armour dates back to ancient times and was a very effective type of armour, Scale armour was also sometimes worn in medieval times by medieval soldiers such as the Mamluks Read more about the Scale Armour >>
Stirrups were a very important medieval invention that changed the face of medieval warfare and allowed the Cavalry to become powerful Read more about the Stirrups >>
The main purpose of the Surcoat was to identify a knight on the battlefield... Read more about the Surcoat >>
The Greenwich Armoury was established by King Henry VIII who was a militaristic ruler at Greenwich, England in the 15th century Read more about the The Greenwich Armoury >>
The history of medieval armor dates back to the early medieval period from the fall of the Roman Empire in Western Europe around c.500 *it is not until the latter part of the high medieval period around c.1200 that the ‘Galant Knight in Shining Armour’ in full plate armor started to evolve.
The first cuirass *Latin: coriaceus *The rigid armor plate that covered the entire torso of a warrior as multiple pieces or a single unit that is the modern vision of the Medieval Knight – did not appear until around c.1250
Armorers who were a specialist form of a blacksmith that created armor during the medieval period, within this specialized class of smiths’ could also be further specialization such as armorers who only made maille armor *helmets or gauntlets for example.
Armorers were usually individuals or small companies but as the medieval period progressed larger and more sophisticated armorers appeared to meet demand, in particular, Italy and Germany were well respected for the mass-produced armor that was shipped around Europe in large quantities.
Sallet Helmets became popular throughout medieval Europe, especially in Italy (Milan) and Germany (Augsburg and Nuremberg) where the helmets were made by the Great Armor manufacturers of the time.
Historical images depict Anglo-Saxon warriors wearing chainmail and this is confirmed by the findings at an Anglo-Saxon cemetery in Sutton Hoo in Suffolk *A Famous Helmet *The Sutton Hoo believed to belong to an elite Anglo-Saxon Warrior was also discovered.
Anglo Saxon warriors would have worn chainmail armor in battle *mailcoats *coats of mail but not plate armor. Chainmail armor did help reduce the impact of enemy blows, however it was heavy and restricted movement, so the wearer had some advantages over his opponent but there were also some disadvantages.
Anglo Saxons warriors were not that well protected in battle as they only wore chainmail this also slowed them down and made them an easier target, and they did not wear helmets in earlier medieval periods, in fact it wasn’t until around the 11th century that the Anglo-Saxon helmet became more commonplace.
It was the Great Anglo Saxon leader ‘Cnut the Great’ who made a ruling that all soldiers must possess a helmet in 1008 *Anglo- Saxon King ‘Aethelred the Unready’ also ordered helmets to be manufactured for Anglo-Saxon armies.
Anglo Saxon shields were made from different types of wood from material that was abundantly available in Britain Ash, oak, maple, alder, willow, and poplar wood were among the most commonly used types of wood in shield construction.
The basic design of an Anglo-Saxon shield is comprised of multiple wooden planks packed in a circular shape and held together using some adhesive material. In some cases, the wooden structure was then covered with an extra layer of leather to reinforce the shield and make it stronger. Richer Anglo-Saxons of the noble class would occasionally cover the wooden shield structure with a metal like bronze, making it a lot stronger.
Like the Anglo-Saxons, the Vikings wore little body armor but used their shields effectively as a strong defense. Vikings wore part or full chain mail shirts *longer chainmail shirts with long sleeves are commonly described as a ‘Hauberk’.
Chainmail was very expensive and difficult to make and most likely worn by elite Vikings or professional Viking armies *Great Heathen Armies! – Historical evidence suggests that undergarments of some kind underneath the chainmail may have also been worn.
Surprisingly many historians believe that the horned helmet of the Viking warrior depicted in popular mythology was more likely to have been used in rituals rather than for fighting!
Viking round shields were usually 30 to 36 inches in diameter although the specific size of a shield varied according to the warrior wielding it.
Viking Shields as large as 48 inches in diameter were also used. The most common material used in the construction of the round viking shield was linden wood. Other types of wood were also commonly used such as poplar, fir and alder wood.
Multiple planks of wood were glued together and cut into a circular shape for the basic structure of a round shield. The rim of the shield was then fitted with additional bindings such as those of iron to reinforce the structure.
Leather and different kinds of fibrous materials were used on the front of the shield to make the shield more durable and prevent enemy blades from cutting too deep.
Norman mounted warriors wore a chainmail shirt that fell to their knees. The mail shirt, called a ‘hauberk’, was quite effective on the battlefield, especially when complemented with other types of armor.
A vital part of a Norman warrior’s battlefield armor was the steel helm that he wore on his head. The Norman helm was conical in shape. It could be one of the two types in terms of its manufacture.
One type of Norman helm comprised of one-piece construction which was harder and more expensive but also proved to be far sturdier on the battlefield.
The shield provided Norman warriors with a good defense when wielding a weapon with the other hand. The shape of the Norman shields was typically like a kite. This shape replaced the round-shaped shield which was common among the Norman towards the end of the 10th century. The kite-shaped shield was made from wood and often covered with leather which, in turn, was painted in different patterns.
The most practical form of medieval armor used in the early medieval ages was chain-mail armor which consisted of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
When mail armor first appeared it was expensive and very time-consuming to make *for this reason after a battle dead soldiers could be looted for their mail armor.
During the start of the medieval period soldiers usually did not have much head protection as they usually only wore a Mail Coif and a Hauberk. The Coif and the Hauberk were made from this chain-mail and the interlocking loops of metal were woven into some type of suitable fabric.
It is believed that the first forms of plate armor were developed in the Middle East which were then adopted by other countries in the medieval world.
In the later parts of the medieval period armor became more sophisticated and was designed to protect every part of the body. Items that were introduced and made the most impact were full plate armor and helmets in different shapes and sizes.
During the 14th century, new forms of weapons were being developed *high powered crossbows which were able to penetrate early chain-mail armor and armorers had to create better plate armor that covered the entire body*