“The Fifth Crusade was an ambitious attempt to reassert Christian control over the Holy Land. Despite its initial successes, the crusade ultimately failed due to political infighting and military setbacks.”Jonathan Phillips, Professor of Crusading History at Royal Holloway, University of London.
Pope Innocent lll started the fifth Crusade, he was well aware of the mistakes made during the fourth Crusade and was determined that this would not happen again.
To achieve his aim Pope Innocent lll was insistent that the 5th Crusade would be controlled by the church and not by kings so that the church would have full control over this crusade.
In 1213, Pope Innocent III issued a call for a new crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslim Ayyubid dynasty, which controlled the Holy Land.
In 1217, an army led by Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, set out for the Holy Land. They were joined by a fleet from Genoa.
The crusaders arrived in Egypt in 1218 and began attacking key ports and fortresses along the coast. They also launched a failed attack on the city of Damietta.
In 1219, the crusaders besieged and eventually captured Damietta, one of the most important cities in Egypt. However, they were unable to capitalize on this victory and instead squabbled amongst themselves.
In 1221, the crusaders suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Mansoura, which effectively ended their campaign in Egypt.
In 1228, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II launched his own crusade, which successfully negotiated the return of Jerusalem to Christian control through diplomatic means.
However, the terms of the treaty were widely criticized, and many crusaders felt that Frederick had effectively abandoned the principles of holy war.
The Fifth Crusade ultimately failed in its primary objective of retaking Jerusalem, and it marked a significant shift in the tactics and goals of the crusading movement.
As in previous Crusades, the goal of the 5th Crusade was to return the Holy lands and the city of Jerusalem to Christian rule. However, there was little enthusiasm for the fifth Crusade because of previous unsuccessful campaigns Crusades.
The Pope decided to offer rewards to Christian people who would take part in the Fifth Crusade. The Pope also asked people who are unable to make the journey to fast and pray for a positive outcome for the fifth Crusade.
Unfortunately, Pope Innocent III, died before his plans could be accomplished and the fifth crusade mission was taken up by a new Pope called ‘Honorius’.
The Fifth Crusade was yet another attempt to recapture the Holylands from Muslim rule, the plan was to attack the Ayyubid state in Egypt first and to try and divide the Egyptian people.
The Fourth Crusade had been a disaster and due to a severe breakdown in discipline in which the European crusaders attacked their fellow Byzantine Christians, this served to divide the Christians and strengthen the ties between the Egyptian people that had been previously fragmented, now Egypt was as united as ever.
The Egyptians now controlled Jerusalem and had captured much of the land that Christians in previous crusades had fought for and won.
The armies of the 5th Crusade set off for Acre in 1217, at this time John of Brienne was the ruler of Jerusalem Kingdom and Prince Bohemund IV ruled the kingdom of Antioch.
The crusaders would join forces with their armies in the fight against the Ayyubids state of Egypt.
The Crusaders were making good progress when they were joined by the armies from Germany and Holland, this strengthened their resolve to conquer the Holy Lands and retake Jerusalem.
Oliver of Cologne, the count of Holland, and William I were united in their attempt to conquer Egypt.
They also had another ace up their sleeve when they persuaded allied Seljuk Sultan of Rum to join them, he would give them more attacking options and would work his way from the North to fight the Egyptians.
In the summer of 1218, during The Fifth Crusades, the crusaders launched their assault on Damietta, which was a strategically important Egyptian settlement. The crusaders caught Sultan Al-Adil by surprise, however, the city survived and the invading crusaders were repelled.
“The Fifth Crusade was unique in its emphasis on diplomacy rather than outright military conquest. However, this approach ultimately proved ineffective in achieving the crusaders’ goals.”Carol Lansing, Professor of Medieval History at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
The crusaders of the Fifth Crusade were determined and resolute and continued to attack for several months and there were thousands of lives lost before the battle for Damietta finally reached its conclusion.
The Crusaders found a wealth of treasure, gold, silver, jewels, etc. and this inspired them to continue their march towards Cairo, this would be the last thing in their way and they could then march onto Cairo, then nothing would stand between them and Jerusalem.
“The Fifth Crusade represented a turning point in Christian-Muslim relations, as it marked a significant escalation in violence and hostility between the two faiths.”Thomas Asbridge, Professor of Medieval History at Queen Mary University of London.
Al-Adil planned to resist the crusaders a few miles outside of Damietta.
The crusaders had received word of the Sultans’ location, however, there was to be no resistance from the Egyptians who were shocked by the size of the Christian army as it marched towards them, many fled in fear for their lives towards Cairo and the famous Nile river.
The crusaders of the Fifth Crusade quickly followed the Egyptian forces but did not anticipate that the Nile which had become flooded would halt their progress and trap them.
“The Fifth Crusade was marked by a complex web of alliances and rivalries, as various European powers jockeyed for influence in the Holy Land. These political machinations often overshadowed the religious motivations behind the crusade.”Helen Nicholson, Emeritus Professor of Medieval History at Cardiff University.
The Christian armies of the Fifth Crusade with little backup provisions including food became demoralised and started to retreat as they had nowhere to go.
As the Christian armies retreated they were attacked and they lost a lot of men, however, they caused the Egyptian soldiers many problems even though they were on the run.
The Crusaders would eventually agree to return Damietta to the Sultan after they were finally captured, and this brought an end to the fifth Crusade.
“The Fifth Crusade in Context: The Crusade and the Eastern Mediterranean” by Peter Edbury
This book provides a detailed examination of the political, social, and cultural context of the Fifth Crusade, with a particular emphasis on the eastern Mediterranean region.
“The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land” by Thomas Asbridge
While this book covers all the Crusades, it devotes significant attention to the Fifth Crusade and offers a comprehensive overview of the events leading up to it, as well as its impact on medieval Europe and the Middle East.
“The Fifth Crusade: The Crusades Series, Book 8” by Mark Butler
Part of the popular Crusades series, this book offers an engaging and accessible account of the Fifth Crusade, focusing on the key players and events.
“The Crusades Through Arab Eyes” by Amin Maalouf
This book offers a unique perspective on the Crusades, as it presents the events from the viewpoint of Arab sources. It provides a thought-provoking and nuanced perspective on the complex dynamics of the era, including the Fifth Crusade.
“Crusading in the Age of Joinville” by Caroline Smith
This book offers a fascinating exploration of the world of the crusades, with a particular focus on the thirteenth century and the era of the Fifth Crusade. It offers insights into the motivations and experiences of those involved in the conflict, both crusaders and Muslims.