In this article, we will explore some of the key moments and decisive battles that defined the Hundred Years’ War.
The conflict began when King Edward III of England claimed the French throne, which he believed was rightfully his through his mother, Isabella, the daughter of the previous French king. This led to the initial hostilities and the beginning of the Hundred Years’ War.
One of the first major battles of the war, Crécy was a significant English victory. It showcased the effectiveness of the English longbow, which inflicted heavy casualties on the French. This battle set the stage for the English conquest of France.
The Black Death ravaged both England and France, leading to a temporary truce. The pause allowed both sides to recover and replenish their forces.
In this battle, the English, led by Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French forces and captured King John II of France. This battle further weakened the French monarchy’s position.
This treaty ended the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War, with substantial territorial concessions by France to England. Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne in return for control over significant French territories.
Conflict resumed in the late 1360s due to disputes over the terms of the Treaty of Bretigny-Calais and the French desire to regain territory.
The siege of Orléans marked a turning point in the war. The French forces, inspired by Joan of Arc, successfully lifted the siege and began a series of French victories.
At Patay, the French army, led by Joan of Arc, routed the English forces. This battle is often considered the beginning of the end for English dominance in the war.
This treaty saw Burgundy switching sides to support the French, further weakening the English position. The war now transformed into a struggle for the last remaining English possessions in France.
The Hundred Years’ War concluded with the Battle of Castillon. The French, using cannon and artillery effectively, defeated the English forces, effectively ending English territorial ambitions in France.
The Hundred Years’ War was a complex and lengthy conflict with numerous significant moments and battles. It ultimately reshaped the map of Europe, marked the end of feudal warfare, and had profound consequences for both England and France.
The war’s legacy continues to be felt in the annals of history and remains a testament to the enduring human spirit during times of prolonged conflict.