Medieval Helmets List


Medieval Helmets List

There were many types of medieval Helmet which in its most basic description was armour or protection for the head. Very early helmets could be made from a mix of hardened leather with metal additions.

Later medieval helmets were more commonly made from metals such as iron or steel. Skilled smiths known as armourers (specialist blacksmiths) would forge helmets into the required shape using a furnace, anvil and tools such as hammers.

Forge-Medieval-Blacksmith


Most Popular Medieval Helmets List

Norman *Nasal Helmet

The Vikings and Normans wore a conical-shaped spangenhelm construction helmet with a metal nose guard – This type of helmet was commonly known as a Nasal Helmet of Spangenhelm construction.


Viking Spangenhelm Helmet

The Vikings also wore a spangenhelm construction helmet, commonly eye plates and side plates were added for additional protection. Historians now believe that the Vikings only wore horned helmets for ceremonial purposes and not for battle!

Viking-Helmet-with-eye-plate-coif

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The Great Helm *Crusader Helmet

The Crusader helmet refers to a type of helmet that was worn during the crusades by religious orders of knights such as the  “Knights Templar”. The Crusader helmet was designed for maximum protection.

Around the 11th Century, a cylindrical helmet that had a flat top called the  Great Helm became popular these are also known as crusader helmets,  many variations of the popular Great Helm were produced such as the Sugarloaf Helm.

The Great Helm was heavily built and made from iron, weighing as much as 10 pounds. The helmet was usually flat-topped and had tiny slots for the eyes and mouth. These eye slots were called occulariums.

Medieval Knights Helmet

SugarLoaf Helm

The black prince was a famous medieval knight who wore the Great Helm. Helms were large and heavy, hot and uncomfortable to wear with restrictive breathing and limited vision, small holes created to help breathing also helped lower level visibility. The Great Helm was usually only donned at the last minute before battle.

Great Helm Helmet worn by Medieval Knights and Crusaders


Bascinet Helmet  *Visors *Knight & Infantry Helmet

Bascinet-Helmet

Infantry Bascinet worn with Aventail

The Bascinet was a popular helmet with both Knights and Infantry. It could be worn with or without a visor. The visor was called a Hounskull and was attached with rivets on the sides. Records from the late 12th century indicate that different types of bascinet helmet were also worn by lower-ranking soldiers including archers.

The word Visor comes from the Old France word “Vis” which means Face. The Visor covered an opening in the helmet and could usually be lowered or raised to allow the knight to be able to breathe better and cool the face.

Later versions with rounded visors called ‘Great Bascinets’ were popular in later medieval times.

Great-Bascinet-Medieval-Helmets

Great Bascinet


Sallet Helmet

The Sallet was a helmet worn in the late medieval period, popular in Germany and Italy in the 15th century.

The Sallet had a visor and sloping back part that protected the neck. The Sallet Helmet was often combined with a Bevor to also provide protection for the neck and lower face.


Knights Tournamet Helmets

Knights wore a wide variety of helmets during medieval tournaments. Closed Helms were popular. Knights wore Great Helms, Bascinets with Hounskull Visor, Sallets and other unusal helmets such as the German Frog Mouth Jousting ‘Stechhelm.

Tournament Helmets were commonly painted in Heraldic colours of the Knight for ceremonial purposes and identification.

Tournament Helmets were often fanciful and adorned with Crests and Decoration for ceremonial purposes and identification.

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Kettle Hat

The Kettle hat was worn by the common foot soldiers such as pikemen in the 12th and 13th centuries. Kettle hats had a wide brim that was similar to a sun hat. The Kettle hat protected the head from downward blows and could be worn over a chainmail coif.

There was a massive amount of Variants of the Kettle hat throughout medieval Europe


The barbute was a very popular helmet in Italy during the late medieval period