Byzantine Architecture c. 500 to c. 1500

Byzantine architecture refers to such architecture as was constructed in the Byzantine Empire during the period of its existence from the 4th century until the 15th century.

During this period, successive Byzantine emperors commissioned the construction of numerous magnificent structures, many of which are extant to this day.


The true beauty of the architecture is the exquisite way in which it harmonizes many disparate elements and influences. Early Byzantine architecture is marked by a profound Roman influence which is no surprise since Byzantine Empire itself was formerly the Eastern Roman Empire.

By the time Justinian The Great became Emperor in the 6th century, Christianity had become an overwhelming influence in the Empire. This was reflected in most of the buildings constructed during Justinian’s era which coupled Roman architectural features with Christian themes and resulted in such architectural masterpieces as the Hagia Sophia.

Inside Hagia Sophia Istanbul Byzantine Architecture

Inside Hagia Sophia Istanbul Byzantine Architecture


During the thousand-year existence of the Empire, Byzantine architecture underwent significant evolution. It was during this evolution that the architecture gave birth to many architectural features which were distinctly its own.

These include the widespread use of mosaics in ecclesiastical buildings, a feature exclusively relatable to the Byzantine architecture. Other identifying features included the use of complex domes which were propped up with the use of piers, the use of brick and plaster and an eye to geographic complexity of the overall structure of a building.

Many of these features are reflected in the extant Byzantine buildings such as the Hagia Irene in Istanbul and Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo basilica in Ravenna.

Important Facts about Byzantine Architecture:

  • Byzantine architecture is recognizable by its distinct use of domes, combined use of basilica and symmetrical central plans of churches, and the use of huge mosaics used in the decoration of buildings.
  • Its origins came from the Roman Empire of which the Byzantine Empire was once a part.
  • Dates from the 5th century until the collapse of the Empire in the 15th century.
  • Byzantine architecture was influenced by Roman architecture in the West as well as architecture in the East.
  • Byzantine architecture can be seen in modern-day Istanbul, Ravenna in Italy and Greece.

The site of most notable Byzantine buildings was Constantinople, a magnificent capital of a powerful Empire. It was here that successive Byzantine emperors commissioned the construction of different buildings during different periods.

Another city where Byzantine architecture left an indelible mark was Ravenna in Italy. The city came under Byzantine control from 540 until 751 during which many buildings reflecting the distinct Byzantine style were constructed.

Byzantine-architecture underwent revival from 9th to 11th centuries but few buildings of this period and the later centuries of the Empire’s existence are extant today.

Top five examples of Byzantine architecture:

  • Hagia Irene in Istanbul which originally dates back to 548 but underwent reconstruction in the 8th century.
  • Hagia Sophia in Istanbul which dates back to 537 and is considered a masterpiece commissioned by Justinian The Great.
  • Hosios Loukas monastery in Boeotia, Greece which dates back to 959.
  • Basilica of Sant’ Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna which dates back to the 6th century.
  • Saint Catherine’s monastery in Mount Sinai which was constructed in the 6th century.

Useful links

An Introduction To Byzantine Architecture

Early Byzantine Architecture








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