Medieval Literature

Although some of the earliest forms of medieval poetry date back to the late seventh century, Medieval literature per se had no clear-cut beginnings.

Most of the stories back then were relayed through word of mouth by bards, minstrels, and troubadours and only a small amount of literary works survived the ages. Due to the lack of a central movement, it was difficult to trace the roots of medieval literature, much less the name of certain authors.


Minstrels and Troubadours

Nevertheless, Medieval literature greatly contributed to and had a lasting influence on modern-day works of fiction.

Medieval Literature Characteristics

The literary culture that thrived in the Medieval era was far ahead of the times. There was a smattering of different languages, from Latin to French to English.

Liturgical literary works were mostly written in Latin as not only was it the main cross-cultural language at that time but it was the very language used by the church and the academe (usually for the purpose of learning).

“For secular Literature, French was the dominant language”.

The Legend of King Arthur may have started in Britain but King Arthur enjoyed the same status as international celebrities. He was a well-known literary figure in just about any part of Europe and was often exulted in Celtic poems and tales.

King Arthur

The Celts and the French were already praising this charismatic historical icon even before he became the popular and timeless British hero that we now know him to be.

Medieval Literature in Latin

Latin Medieval Literature – It was common for medieval literature to be written in Latin or French

Medieval Romance Literature

Arthurian legends were some of the most commonly told stories in Welsh and Celtic districts, but what made such legends a favorite among towns’ people is that they often depict acts of valor, chivalric principles, and other qualities greatly treasured in Medieval times.

King Arthur Excalibur

King Arthur and the famous sword Excalibur

As stories of King Arthur and the knights of the round table became sensational throughout Europe, ideals of courtly love became more widespread. The bards narrated the tales and chroniclers took the effort to write them down on paper.


King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

Geoffrey of Monmouth, a Welsh author, and cleric, was the man responsible for propagating King Arthur’s legend.

His fictional medieval literature work Historia Regum Britanniae, written in 1136, held some of the world’s most favorite Arthurian stories. Author Nennius also wrote his own version of romantic Arthurian legends, which were chronicled in works like Mabinogion, Chronicon Anglicanum, Mabinogion, and Annales Cambrie.


William the Conqueror’s rule over England changed the primary language used in Medieval Europe. Along with Latin, the French language became widely used in medieval literature as well as the primary language of communication in court during the 1300s.

When King Henry IV took back the British throne, English became the primary mode of communication in the literary field.

King Henry VI portrait painting

King Henry VI

  • French was the dominant language in Secular medieval literature
  • Valour and chivalric qualities were popular in medieval times and made popular medieval literature subjects
  • Arthur the legendary knight was popular in the medieval literature written by Geoffrey of Monmouth
  • Latin was also a popular language in which to write medieval literature
  • Henry IV established the common use of English in medieval literature above other previously dominant languages
Medieval Religious Literature

Medieval Literature – Pages From a Medieval Bible

Famous Authors *Medieval Literature

Though most surviving Medieval literary works were highly esteemed in academic quarters, there were not too many of them. Known authors and poet laureates during the Medieval era included

Dante Alighieri (a major Italian poet and politician)

Portrait de Dante Alighieri Famous Medieval People

Geoffrey Chaucer (the famous author of Canterbury Tales)

Portrait Geoffrey Chaucer Famous Medieval People

John Gower (Chaucer’s rival and also a famed Medieval poet)

John Gower world Vox Clamantis

Giovanni Boccaccio (an Italian writer who shot to fame with the work Decameron).

Famous Medieval People Giovanni Boccaccio

Although men seemed to be the more privileged gender orientation at that time, Medieval women were just as capable of producing equally great pieces of medieval literature.

Women medieval literature writers like Christine de Pizan and Margery Kempe were like the feminist writers of the Medieval period. The former was a popular Medieval author who wrote stories of courtly love and romance for French monarchs, dukes, and other members of the nobility.

She was also a women’s rights advocate and one of the world’s first-known feminists. The latter, on one hand, was well-known for writing the first English autobiography.

Marie De France, another famed Medieval French writer, rose to popularity after giving the public a glimpse of the Medieval way of life through her insights on courtly love and society in general.

Medieval Literature: Famous Works and Authors

Critically acclaimed literary works in the Middle Ages which continue to be as influential today as they then included the following:

  • Caedmon’s Hymn (earliest surviving English poem)
  • Beowulf (the earliest Anglo-Saxon epic poem written in Old English)
  • Ramon Llull’s The Book of the Order of Chivalry (an old book that details the history of and theories on knighthood)
  • Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales (contains various accounts of Medieval life portrayed in different settings and situations)
  • Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur (a compilation of epic and romantic stories about Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table)
St. Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas Aquinas

Other crucial figures that were instrumental to the growth of religious Medieval literature were St. Thomas Aquinas, Martin Luther, and John Wycliffe. All three authors were religious reformers in their own right.

Posting of 95 theses by Martin Luther in Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther

Thomas Aquinas’ treatises were highly regarded by the Catholic Church. Martin Luther was the founder of Protestantism through his 95 theses and John Wycliffe reformed aspects of religion and was able to translate the Bible to English.

Medieval Religious Literature

Medieval Literature Pages From a Medieval Bible

Medieval Literature Themes

Medieval authors and bards explored various themes to come up with their respective masterpieces. Some of the most commonly tackled medieval literature themes were courtly love and chivalry, which were depicted several times in various Arthurian works. It could also be observed that Medieval literature discussed culture a great deal. In fact, it was at the heart of almost every piece of literature.

Courtly love in medieval times

Courtly Love

Medieval authors were keen to highlight important manifestations of culture like music, art, architecture, and liturgy but, on a side note, could well be an attempt to unify and squelch brewing internal strife.

Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales was a colorful display of the diversity of Medieval culture, albeit with an occasional dark twist. Medieval writers also enjoyed exploring themes of family, kinship, and many other values important in that era.

Medieval literature paved the way for current and future generations who are eager to know more about the Middle Ages and how its inhabitants lived, loved, and tended to their spiritual necessities, setting a good example of how learning from the past can be beneficial to future endeavors.