Continental Europe included many kingdoms, principalities, and empires during the medieval period. These political entities were ruled by kings, duke, and other monarchs. Some European dynasties emerged as more powerful and resilient. Their descendants would go on to supply heirs to many crowns across the continent, and keep the dynasty in power for centuries. Here is a look at some of the most powerful and notable dynasties of continental Europe.
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg continued to supply monarchs for continental Europe from the 5th century all the way until 15th century. Originating in Central Europe, the House of Habsburg eventually became one of the most powerful and formidable dynasties of Europe.
Its territories included modern-day Germany, Austria, Spain, and several neighboring territories.
By the 15th century, Habsburgs’ power rivaled and even outmatched that of France. It reached its zenith in the reign of the most powerful Habsburg monarch, Charles V. During his reign, Spanish colonization of the Americas also began, effectively adding territories from a newly-discovered continent to Habsburg possessions.
House of Medici
The House of Medici was a Florentine dynasty that rose to power on the back of the Medici Bank that they founded in the 14th century. The Medici Bank was among the most reputable and prestigious financial institutions in Europe for nearly a century. It also made the House of Medici one of the wealthiest families in continental Europe.
The House of Medici has immense influence in the Republic of Florence as well across Italy. Four Catholic Popes in the 16th and 17th centuries belonged to the Medici family. The House of Medici also produced two French queens. The family played a notable role in the developments of the arts and humanism, patronizing the major figures of Renaissance such as Leonardo da Vinci.
Cosimo de Medici
Marie de Medici
Catherine de Medici
The Capetian dynasty descended from Hugh Capet, the King of France in late 10th century. His direct descendants would continue to rule over France all the way until 1328. The kingdom was then ruled by cadet branches of the Capetian dynasty, the most notable of these being the House of Bourbon.
The Capetian dynasty ruled France during its formative years. It oversaw the expansion and consolidation of the royal power in France. It was also during the reign of the direct Capetian descendants that France established its close ties with the Papacy. Capetian monarchs also ruled over several other kingdoms including Spain, Poland, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal.
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon was a branch of the Capetian dynasty. It originated in 1272 but couldn’t ascend to power until the direct descendants of Hugh Capet continued to rule France. When direct Capetians lacked a male heir, the House of Bourbon became the ruling dynasty of France from 1589 to 1792.
In 1792, the French Revolution brought a gap in the monarchy which would later be restored in 1814 and remain in power until 1830. Members of the dynasty also became kings, queens, and dukes in other territories and kingdoms. These included Spain, Parma, Naples, Sicily, Etruria, and Lucca.
The Hohenstaufen dynasty ruled over the Holy Roman Empire from 1138 to 1254. During its reign, the Holy Roman Empire reached the zenith of its territorial extent and power. The dynasty also furnished monarchs for the kingdoms of Italy and Sicily, and the duchy of Swabia.