Anglo Saxons ruled most of England from the 5th century until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.
Anglo Saxon settlements in England in the early medieval period of c.400-500
During this period, the Anglo Saxons frequently fought against their Celtic neighbours to the North and West of the British Isles.
The weaponry of the Anglo Saxons evolved significantly during this period and although their defensive armour remained more or less the same in nature, its construction and outlook changed significantly.
Notable pieces of Anglo Saxon armour used on the battlefield included the shield, mail coat and different types of helmets. This type of armour was dictated by the fact that Anglo Saxons mostly fought on foot rather than on horseback.
Anglo Saxon Shield
Shields were the most common type of armour used by all Anglo Saxon warriors. Early forms of Anglo Saxon shields were very basic, with multiple pieces of wood held together with natural glue and then given a circular shape.
The shield was most frequently made from maple, oak or ash wood while the use of linden wood is also often mentioned when referring to Anglo Saxons shields in old English poems. After giving the shield its rudimentary shape, it was sometimes covered with leather to give it an additional layer of protection while high-ranking noblemen would also decorate the front of their shields with bronze or other metals.
The Anglo Saxons used a shield formation as a tactic on the battlefield
A shield was the most vital, and often the only, piece of an Anglo Saxon’s defensive armour. It was critical in helping Anglo Saxons fight with the famous shield-wall formation which formed the backbone of Anglo Saxon defensive warfare.
Anglo Saxon Armour Fast Facts
The Anglo Saxons ruled most of England until the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066
Anglo Saxons fought on the ground and used shields and helmets for protection
The Anglo Saxons used round shields that were made from solid woods and held together by natural glue
Important Anglo Saxon Nobles decorated their shields with expensive metals such as bronze
Anglo Saxons were famous for their shield wall defensive formations on the battlefield
Anglo Saxon Mail
Mailcoats made from chain mail were also a notable part of Anglo Saxon armour although its widespread use hasn’t been established through archaeological evidence. The Anglo Saxon mail was typically made by linking riveted rings of metal into a shirt which was then worn during battlefield combat.
Hauberk worn by medieval soldiers
The chainmail came with distinct advantages as well as disadvantages. It was very effective against sharp weapons such as axes and effectively blocked any blows from them. When facing a pointed weapon such as a spear, a mail coat wasn’t as effective and it could often be pierced.
The mail coat carried a lot of weight, slowing down the movements of the warrior during combat on the battlefield. It seems probable that many Anglo Saxon warriors chose not to wear mail so as to keep their movements swift on the battlefield.
Anglo Saxon Armour
Anglo Saxon Helmets
Helmets were another kind of armour used by the Anglo Saxon warriors although their use became popular only towards the 11th century. Extant Anglo Saxon helmets have been found to be made either from a single piece of metal or many pieces held together in a metal frame.
A single-piece Anglo Saxon helmet usually came with a face mask as well as a neck-guard to effectively shield the body above the shoulders. A multi-piece helmet was inexpensive to produce but was less durable and sturdy. Anglo Saxon warriors often had different animals such as boars engraved or painted on their helmets to give them a distinct identity.
Anglo Saxon Armour Fast Facts
Anglo Saxon Chainmail could block axe blows but was easily pierced by pointed weapons like swords
Chainmail was heavy and movement limited, warriors got tired so many warriors wore no chainmail
Anglo Saxon Helmets were either made from one piece of metal or several pieces held in a metal frame
A single piece Anglo Saxon helmet was superior to a multi-piece helmet but more expensive to make
Many Anglo Saxon warriors could be identified by the engraved images on their helmets, usually of animal