High Medieval Period *1000 AD – 1250
High Medieval Period Important Events List
1000 – 1100 AD
- 1016 – Canute the Great becomes King of England after the death of Edmund Ironside, with whom he shared the English throne. Danes become rulers of England for the next 26 years before the last rise of the Anglo-Saxons before the Norman Conquest.
- 1018 – The Byzantines under Basil II conquer Bulgaria after a bitter 50-years struggle.
- 1018 – After 50 years of struggle Bazil II, the Byzantine emperor conquers Bulgaria.
- 1037 – The Great Seljuk Empire is founded by Tughril Beg who would become a major force in both crusades and an antagonist to the Byzantine Empire over the next century.
- 1050 – A tool called astrolabe is first used in Europe for navigation and was primarily used by navigators, astrologers, and astronomers.
- 1071 – The Seljuk Empire defeated the Byzantines In Manzikert and the Normans capture Bari which was the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy and marked the beginning of the end of all Byzantine grip on Asia Minor.
- 1077 – The famous Tower of London began construction and became the ultimate keep of the English Empire.
- 1088 – The famous university of Bologna was formed making it the oldest university in Europe.
- 1095 – Pope Urban gave an order which would begin the first out of nine holy crusades, which were ordered to capture the holy land and repel the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantine Empire.
- 1099 – The first holy crusade is successful and the city of Jerusalem is retaken by the Muslims at the urging of Pope Urban II. This will lead to the start of the Kingdom of Jerusalem which will last nearly two centuries.
1100 – 1250 AD
- 1109 – The German expansion toward the center of Europe is stopped in a decisive battle at Hundsfeld.
- 1116 – The Turks receive a major blow in a defeat at the battle of Philomelion by the Byzantine army which then forces them to abandon the entire coastal area around Anatolia and all of the western part of it as well.
- 1117 – The famous University of Oxford was founded and it is the oldest university in the United Kingdom”.
- 1118 – The city of Jerusalem required protection for itself and its pilgrims in this year thus the order of the Knight Templars was formed which later became one of the most recognized and influential orders during the crusades.
- 1125 – a new Holy Roman Emperor is elected, this time being Lothair of Supplinburg the duke of Saxony.
- 1135 – Major anarchy starts in England, marking a 19-year-old period of government strife and Civil War between supporters of Stephen and Matilda and marking the start of the Plantagenet Dynasty and end of the anarchy with the crowning of Matilda’s son, Henry II.
- 1147 – The second crusade started which was in retaliation for the fall of Edessa, the first crusade ever that was led by a European king, and the first ever Crusader State which was founded by the first crusade, although a complete failure.
- 1147- The Hanseatic league an organization of guilds and merchants was founded, bringing forth a new period of trading and economic developments for both North and Central Europe.
- 1163 – The first-ever cornerstone was laid and the construction of the famous Notre Dame de Paris was underway.
- 1166 – The famous king called Stefan Nemanja united the Balkan peninsula under his Serbian rule in the year, this led to a very powerful state which will dominate for the next three hundred years.
- 1187 – The sultan of Egypt called Saladin lead his forces to victory against the city of Jerusalem and although successful it will lead to a third crusade. Older records show a merchants guild being formed dating around 1193.
- 1202 – a bloody battle takes place in the Croatian city of Zadar. The fourth crusade sacked the city because it did not have enough money to pay the Venetian contractors and that was the first time a catholic army attacked a catholic city. The fourth crusade did not stop there, it also sacked the city of Constantinople which begins the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
- 1206 – The Mongol Empire was formed by the rule of Genghis Khan which will then lead to them conquering much of Eurasia.
- 1209 – The famous university of Cambridge is formed. The year 1209 also marked the foundation of the Franciscan order which was the first significant order of the Roman Catholic church.
- 1212 – Brought a very welcoming victory by the Spanish Christians who defeated the Moors and continued to defeat them in their Reconquista campaign until later 1248 only Grenada remained under Muslim control.
- The year 1227 marks the year when the famous leader of the Mongols, Genghis Khan, dies. After his death, the empire is divided among his children and grandchildren and only 10 years later in 1237 to 1240 the Mongols invade Rus’ which will lead to the splitting of the country into what is known as Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus today.