The high Medieval period of history was not as violent as early times and England no longer suffered from the constant Viking raids and invasions which was a big relief to English Medieval people.
The English were now ruled by the Normans and the feudal system was in place which meant that the French King William the conqueror now owned all of the land and controlled people through a network of Barons/Lords who collected rents from medieval people in return for use of parcels of land.
Other important events that took place were 1215 when the Barons rebelled against King John and he was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1275 which was supposed to give the Barons more rights over land and taxes.
In 1275 just before the late Medieval period of history the English Parliament which had been set up to started to meet more regularly.
Important Events in High Medieval Period of History – 11th – 12th century
1109 – The German expansion toward the centre of Europe is stopped in a decisive battle at Hundsfeld.
1116 – The Turks receive a major blow in a defeat at the battle of Philomelion by the Byzantine army which then forces them to abandon the entire coastal area around Anatolia and all of the western part of it as well.
“1117 – The famous University of Oxford was founded and it is the oldest university in the United Kingdom”.
1118 – The city of Jerusalem required protection for itself and its pilgrims in this year thus the order of the Knight Templars was formed which later became one of the most recognized and influential orders during the crusades.
1125 – a new Holy Roman Emperor is elected , this time being Lothair of Supplinburg the duke of Saxony.
1135 –Major anarchy starts in England, marking a 19 year old period of government strife and Civil War between supporters of Stephen and Matilda and marking the start of Plantagenet Dynasty and end of the anarchy with the crowning of Matilda son, Henry II.
1147 – The second crusade starts which was in retaliation for the fall of Edessa, the first crusade ever that was led by an European king and the first ever Crusader State which was founded by the first crusade, although a complete failure.
1147- The Hanseatic league an organization of guilds and merchants was founded, bringing forth a new period of trading and economic developments for both North and Central Europe.
1163 – The first ever cornerstone was laid and the construction of the famous Notre Dame de Paris was under way.
1166 – The famous king called Stefan Nemanja united the Balkan peninsula under his Serbian rule in the year, this lead to a very powerful state which will dominate for the next three hundred years.
1187 –The sultan of Egypt called Saladin lead his forces to victory against the city of Jerusalem and although successful it will lead to a third crusade. Older records show a merchants guild being formed dating around 1193.
12th century to the end of the high medieval period of history
The year 1202 was bloody due to the battle at the Croatian city of Zadar. The fourth crusade sacked the city because it did not have enough money to pay the Venetian contractors and that was the first time a catholic army attacked a catholic city. The fourth crusade did not stop there, it also sacked the city of Constantinople which begins the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
“1206 – The Mongol Empire was formed by the rule of Genghis Khan which will then lead to them conquering much of Eurasia”.
1209 – The famous university of Cambridge is formed. The year 1209 also marked the foundation of the Franciscan order which was the first significant order of the Roman Catholic church.
1212 – Brought a very welcoming victory by the Spanish Christians who defeated the Moors and continued to defeat them in their Reconquista campaign until later 1248 only Grenada remained under Muslim control.
The year 1227 marks the year when the famous leader of the Mongols , Genghis Khan, dies. After his death the empire is divided among his children and grandchildren and only 10 years later in 1237 to 1240 the Mongols invade Rus’ which will lead to the splitting of the country into what is known as Russia, Ukraine and Belarus today.
The year 1258 brought the end of the Golden Islamic age with the fall of Baghdad under the Mongols.
1282 – The Sicilians massacre the Angevins over a six week period which marks the start of two decades of war.
1296 – Marks the start of the first war of the Scottish Independence with the attack of Edward I of England on Scotland. The famous battle of Sterling bridge took place on 1297 where William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance in England.
The famous Marco Polo publishes his tales of China in the year 1298 which leads to increase in trade between Europe and Asia.
The year 1299 marks the foundation of Ottoman Empire by Osman which will last over 600 years and into the 20th century.
This ends the High Period of medieval history and we move into what is known as the Late Medieval period of History.