The Great Armor and Weapons Manufacturers of the Medieval Period: A Timeline and Overview

Great armor and weapons manufacturers that evolved during the medieval period, including a timeline of when they appeared and the reasons large manufacturers came to be, listing some of the important ones that existed in Europe, including England.

Full Suit of Plate Armour
A full suit of knights plate armour, advanced armour for a knight.

“The great armor and weapons manufacturers of the medieval period were not only skilled craftsmen but also innovators. Their continuous experimentation and improvement of manufacturing techniques pushed the boundaries of what was possible in terms of protection and offensive capabilities on the battlefield.”

Dr. Alan Williams, Research Scientist at the Conservation Department of the Royal Armouries and author of “The Knight and the Blast Furnace: A History of the Metallurgy of Armour in the Middle Ages & the Early Modern Period.”

The medieval period was a time of great innovation in armor and weapons manufacturing, as Europe’s warriors sought to protect themselves and defeat their enemies on the battlefield.

Over time, large armor and weapons manufacturers emerged, producing some of the most famous and effective weapons and armor of the period.

In this article, we’ll take a look at the timeline of armor and weapons manufacturing during the medieval period, and the important manufacturers that emerged.

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10th Century: The Rise of Local Armorers and Weaponsmiths

During the 10th century, most armor and weapons were produced by local armorers and weaponsmiths. These craftsmen produced armor and weapons for their local lord or ruler, as well as for individual knights and warriors.

The quality of the armor and weapons varied greatly, depending on the skill and experience of the individual craftsman.


11th-12th Century: The Guilds and the Emergence of Larger Manufacturers

During the 11th and 12th centuries, guilds began to emerge in Europe, which were groups of craftsmen who banded together to protect their interests and set standards for their craft. The guilds helped to raise the quality of armor and weapons produced by local craftsmen, and also led to the emergence of larger manufacturers.

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One of the most famous manufacturers to emerge during this time was the Royal Arsenal in Venice, Italy, which was established in the 12th century. The Royal Arsenal produced a wide range of weapons, including swords, crossbows, and firearms, and played a key role in the rise of Venice as a naval power.

13th Century: The Growth of Armor and Weapons Manufacturing in England

During the 13th century, armor and weapons manufacturing in England grew rapidly, with the emergence of large manufacturers such as the Royal Armouries in the Tower of London.

The Royal Armouries was established in the early 13th century and played a key role in the production of armor and weapons for the English army. The Royal Armouries also developed new technologies, such as the longbow, which played a key role in English victories during the Hundred Years’ War.

The White Tower of London
Medieval Castles Tower of London White tower london has a history of Be-headings

“The armor and weapons manufacturers of the medieval period played a crucial role in equipping knights and warriors for battle. Their expertise in metallurgy, leatherworking, and craftsmanship produced some of the most iconic and functional armaments of the time.”

Dr. Tobias Capwell, Curator of Arms and Armor at The Wallace Collection and author of “Armour of the English Knight, 1400-1450.”

14th-15th Century: The Emergence of Specialist Manufacturers

During the 14th and 15th centuries, armor and weapons manufacturing became increasingly specialized, with the emergence of manufacturers who focused on specific types of armor or weapons. For example, the Milanese armorers were famous for their production of high-quality plate armor, while the German swordsmiths were renowned for their longswords.

Collection Knights Helmet Armor

One of the most famous specialist manufacturers to emerge during this time was the Bladesmiths of Toledo, Spain. The Bladesmiths of Toledo were renowned for their production of high-quality swords, which were in demand throughout Europe. The swords produced by the Bladesmiths of Toledo were so highly regarded that they became known as “Toledan blades”.

Medieval Blacksmith at Work

16th Century: The Decline of Armor and Weapons Manufacturing

During the 16th century, the development of firearms led to the decline of armor and weapons manufacturing. Firearms were cheaper and easier to produce than armor and weapons, and soon became the primary weapon of European armies. As a result, many armor and weapons manufacturers went out of business or turned to other crafts.

Medieval Gunpowder Weapons
Medieval Gunpowder Weapons


In conclusion, the medieval armor and weapons manufacturers were master craftsmen who played a pivotal role in shaping the landscape of warfare. Their expertise in metallurgy, leatherworking, and innovative techniques yielded awe-inspiring suits of armor and formidable weapons that protected knights and warriors on the battlefield.

Gothic armour with list of elements

Their creations not only showcased their immense skill but also embodied the ideals of chivalry and knighthood. From their remarkable craftsmanship to their relentless pursuit of improvement, these manufacturers left an enduring legacy that continues to captivate us today, reminding us of the ingenuity and artistry that defined the medieval era.

Great Books about Great Armor and Weapons Manufacturers of the Medieval Period

“Arms and Armor of the Medieval Knight: An Illustrated History of Weaponry in the Middle Ages” by David Edge and John Miles Paddock
Description: This book provides a comprehensive examination of the arms and armor used by medieval knights. It explores the manufacturing techniques, materials, and evolution of weaponry during the medieval period.

“The Knight and the Blast Furnace: A History of the Metallurgy of Armour in the Middle Ages & the Early Modern Period” by Alan Williams
Description: Alan Williams, an expert in medieval metallurgy, offers a detailed analysis of the manufacturing processes behind medieval armor. This book explores the intricate techniques used in creating metal armor and provides insights into the advancements made by armor manufacturers.

“Arms and Armour of the Medieval Joust” by Tobias Capwell
Description: Focusing specifically on the joust, this book explores the specialized armor and weapons used in this iconic medieval tournament. It provides an in-depth look at the manufacturers who crafted these impressive pieces and their role in shaping the jousting tradition.

“The Sword in the Age of Chivalry” by Ewart Oakeshott
Description: Ewart Oakeshott, a renowned authority on medieval swords, presents a comprehensive study of the evolution, typology, and craftsmanship of medieval swords. The book explores the manufacturers behind these iconic weapons and their impact on medieval warfare.

“The Medieval Archer” by Jim Bradbury
Description: While focusing on archery rather than armor, this book offers valuable insights into the manufacture of medieval archery equipment. It examines the construction techniques of bows, arrows, and other archery-related gear, shedding light on the skilled manufacturers who produced these essential tools.

These books and quotes offer a wealth of knowledge about the armor and weapons manufacturers of the medieval period, shedding light on their craftsmanship, innovations, and impact on medieval warfare.

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See Medieval Armor around the World!

There are several museums and historical sites around the world where you can see medieval armor and weaponry firsthand. These places offer a glimpse into the rich heritage and craftsmanship of the medieval era. Here are some notable locations to visit

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, USA
The Arms and Armor collection at the Met showcases a wide range of medieval armor, including full suits of armor, helmets, and weapons, providing a comprehensive overview of medieval military equipment.

The Royal Armouries, Leeds, UK
This museum houses one of the world’s largest collections of arms and armor, featuring a remarkable array of medieval weaponry and armor. The displays offer insights into the manufacturing techniques, historical context, and evolution of medieval military equipment.

The Tower of London, London, UK
As a historic castle, the Tower of London offers visitors the opportunity to view the Royal Armouries’ collection, which includes an impressive display of medieval armor worn by kings, knights, and other notable figures throughout history.

Located in Les Invalides, this museum exhibits a significant collection of medieval armor, including suits worn by French monarchs and knights. It provides a comprehensive overview of the development and diversity of armor during the medieval period.

Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
The museum’s collection includes a remarkable assortment of medieval armor and weaponry, featuring intricately designed suits of armor, shields, swords, and more. It offers a glimpse into the artistic and technical prowess of medieval armorers.

Wallace Collection, London, UK
This museum houses an exquisite collection of medieval arms and armor, showcasing the craftsmanship and decorative elements of these artifacts. Visitors can explore a diverse range of armor pieces, helmets, and weaponry.

Ch√Ęteau de Chillon, Veytaux, Switzerland
Located on the shores of Lake Geneva, this well-preserved medieval castle features displays of armor and weaponry, allowing visitors to step back in time and imagine the lives of knights and nobles who once inhabited the castle.

The Higgins Museum, Bedford, UK
The museum’s Higgins Armory Collection boasts an extensive range of medieval armor and weapons. It provides an in-depth look at the artistry and functionality of medieval military equipment.

These museums and historical sites offer an immersive experience, allowing visitors to admire the craftsmanship, intricate details, and historical significance of medieval armor and weaponry. Exploring these collections provides a unique opportunity to connect with the past and gain a deeper understanding of the medieval era’s martial culture.

Knights Armor Parts
Image that details different parts of a knights armor