Anglo Saxon Weapons *Spears *Axes & Daggers - Weapon of Choice the Medieval Sword Read more about the Anglo Saxon Weapons >>
The Byzantine army was a very efficient fighting force that used an array of well made Byzantine weapons Read more about the Byzantine Weapons >>
The caltrop weapon was effective in stopping medieval cavalry horses. Read more about the Caltrops >>
Discover Castle Siege Weapons *Battering Rams *Mangonels *Trebuchets Read more about the Castle Siege Weapons >>
There were many different daggers such as the ox-tongue and Basilard to name a few. Read more about the Daggers >>
Weapons of the early medieval period closely resembled Roman weapons Read more about the Early Medieval Weapons List >>
The Medieval Flail - A Crude Destructive Clubbing Weapon was commonly used by Knights and Infantry Read more about the Flail Weapon >>
Early Gunpower weapons became more prominent in the 13th century until the end of the medieval period Read more about the Gun Powder Weapons >>
The Swiss Halberd was a Deadly Mix of an Axe, Hook and Pike weapon Combined into one Weapon Read more about the Halberd Weapon >>
Read more about the How Morning Star Weapons were used in Battle >>
Medieval lances were commonly held underarm in what was called a crouched position Read more about the Lance Weapon >>
The English Longbow would come to dominate the Battlefields of Europe *Longbowmen not Knights would Rule Read more about the Longbow Weapon >>
The Mace *Brutal Bronze, Steel or Iron Clubbing Weapon Wielded by Infantry and Men at Arms Read more about the Mace Weapon >>
Medieval Batons were training weapons made from wood or whalebone Read more about the Medieval Baton Weapons >>
War Hammers, Maces and Flails are classed as Medieval Blunt Weapons Read more about the Medieval Blunt Weapons List >>
Discover cleaving weapons such as the Maul, War Hammer or Horseman's pick Read more about the Medieval Cleaving Weapons List >>
Crossbows were also known as Arbalests - 'cross shaped' hence the name 'crossbow' Read more about the Medieval Crossbow >>
The sword of a Medieval knight had a status equal to his honor. Read more about the Medieval Knights Weapons >>
The Pell *Honed The Gallant Knights Swordsmanship Skills and Prepared him for the Rigours of Warfare Read more about the Medieval Pell >>
Ranged Weapons such as longbow and Crossbow were popular with medieval armies Read more about the Medieval Ranged Weapons List >>
Discover Spear Weapons such as the Ahlspiess, Boar Spear, Ox Tongue Spear and Spetum Read more about the Medieval Spear Weapons List >>
The Warhammer was a heavy impact weapon used against heavily armored medieval knights Read more about the Medieval WarHammer >>
The Normans used a wide range of weaponry on the battlefield Read more about the Normans Weapons >>
Pike Weapons would come to Dominate the Battlefield - Pike Formations would Stop Knights in their Tracks Read more about the Pike Weapons >>
Polearm weapons the Fauchard, Guisarme and Glaive were used to dislodge cavalrymen from their mounts Read more about the Polearm Weapons List >>
A Poleaxe head could be a blade, spike or even a hammer Read more about the Poleaxe Weapon >>
Medieval Pole Axes like the Pollaxe, Danish and Sparth Axe were popular weapons Read more about the Poleaxe Weapons List >>
A Quarterstaff or Quarterstave was a very simple, cheap and effective self protection weapon that was light and easy to carry around Read more about the Quarterstaff Weapon >>
The Reconquista armies, often representing Christian kingdoms, usually used a wide range of weapons Read more about the Reconquista Weapons >>
The Scabbard was a container that protected the blades of daggers and swords Read more about the Scabbard >>
Tudor times saw a transformation from traditional medieval weapons to newer Gunpowder weapons Read more about the Tudor Weapons >>
Weapons were an important part of the Viking society and were considered the pride of Viking warriors Read more about the Viking Weapons List >>
A wide array of medieval weapons were developed *cast *forged by skilled blacksmiths throughout medieval times, often designed for a specific military purpose*
Medieval weapons were constantly being *upgraded *re-designed *used in different battle formations and medieval weapons trends could change over time!
*Clubs *Maces and *Warhammers were effective weapons for infantry (foot soldiers) and knights against chain mail and plate armor to first stun and then maim an opponent *a crude but effective weapon.
* Axes could also be used as cleaving, chopping, and crushing weapons, axes often had multiple uses, they were the favored weapons of the ‘Vikings’ and ‘English’ armies during the ‘Battle of Hastings’. The ‘Battle Axe’ became less of a favored weapon in the latter part of the medieval period.
The Axe was used throughout medieval history by foot-soldiers (infantry) in close combat fighting, the Franks were known to use a small throwing axe called the Franciska which was around 2 feet in length.
The Vikings are probably the most famous recognizable users of the axe *Vikings favored the ‘Battle Axe’ also commonly known as the ‘Danish Axe’ which could have a shaft of around 5 feet in length and had to be wielded with both hands!
Pole weapons also known as a pole arm weapons were a grouping of similar weapons that incorporated a long wooden shaft with an added metal head of some type commonly with multiple functions such as an axe and claw.
Pole arm weapons were melee type weapons but with an extended range, increased striking power mean’t that they were even effective against well armoured soldiers and knights.
Some pole arms depending on the head attached could serve as thrusting and throwing weapons such as spears.
Medieval foot soldiers (infantry) commonly used pole-type weapons for close combat on the battlefield *bladed weapons such as poleaxes, polearms, pole hammers, and other long staff weapons.
The poleaxe is classed as a European polearm weapon and was also known as the *pollaxe *pole-axe *pole axe and poleax.
A Pole-Axe was used by foot soldiers (infantry) to stun ‘poleaxe the enemy’, to hit, kill, knockdown*
The Pole-Axe was a later medieval adaptation of the long poled axe with a bladed head, spear point, and hammer at the back.
*Knights used the Pole-axe when fighting on the ground
The Halberd was a popular pole-arm weapon in medieval times, probably the most commonly used amongst infantry, it had a long wooden shaft *spiked top *axe head* curved spike at the back
The medieval sword was the weapon of choice for ‘medieval knights’ and could be used effectively in battle on horse-back or when dismounted *The Sword was more than just a weapon it was symbolically tied to the whole concept of the medieval knight and Knighthood, a mythical weapon of chivalry and virtue!
Medieval swords were developed to be light enough to be used effectively on horseback for knights and other mounted warriors, swords were also an effective weapon in close combat situations on the ground for both Knights and other foot soldiers in medieval battles.
Skilled Blacksmiths cast and forged a wide array of swords during medieval times, over the medieval period there were many different styles and names given to various swords but they were mainly a type of short or long sword.
Common names for medieval swords are *Knightly Sword *One-handed sword *Short Sword *Longsword *Great Sword
The sword was the favorite weapon of the medieval knight, but it was in fact more than a weapon, it was a badge of honor and prestige. Indeed the Knights medieval sword had symbolic value as depicted in the medieval tales of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round table Excalibur (/ɛkˈskælɪbər/) was the legendary sword of King Arthur!
The bond between knights and their swords in medieval times was shown in rituals and events such as dubbing ceremonies, in which squires would be become knights and be blessed by the church.
Early Medieval swords were long, but swords in the later medieval periods were shorter and more rigid than their earlier counterparts. Ancient swords were made by casting bronze, but later more advanced medieval swords were developed using iron which offered more flexibility in the design and development.
Although Vikings are often depicted as wielding axes, their weapon of choice like the knights was the sword, in fact, warfare historians describe Vikings as being prolific sword makers!
Viking swords were outstanding in many ways with many variations of hilt design. Viking swords were very well made and the most common type was designed with a pommel that had three lobes.
There were later improvements in Viking sword design which became heavier and more robust around the 1oth century.
The ‘Ulfbehrt’ Sword was a popular medieval sword that was manufactured in the 9th – 11th Century.
The Falchion Sword was a one-handed solid sword with a one curved edged for cutting and one flat edge, there were 2 variations
The Falchion Sword was popular in the 13th – 14th century*
Learn more about Falchion Swords
Crossbows also called Arbalests were used by medieval foot soldiers (infantry) on the battlefield. The latin word for Crossbow is Balista which means throwing engine (Similar to the Balista Siege Engine)
The Crossbow was an ancient weapon that was used by the Chinese T ‘ang Dynasty and Roman soldiers.
Crossbows did not fire arrows, instead they fired short, thick metal tipped bolts also known as quarrells.
Early Crossbows were loaded by foot & hand, later Crossbows incorporated various loading mechanisms.
Crossbows were used by medieval archers who were classed as infantry (foot soldiers) Crossbowmen could be deployed in advanced positions hidden behind large Pavise shields.
Crossbows were very powerful and effective weapons on the battlefield.
Genoese Crossbowmen who came from Genoa City in Italy were the elite of Crossbowmen during the medieval period and were often in demand and well paid as mercenary soldiers. The French deployed Genoese Crossbowmen in the Battles of Crécy and Sluys.
Learn More about Medieval Crossbow Weapons
Longbows had a wooden stave, commonly made from Yew – looking at the longbow you would notice it had a D shape. The Longbow was large around ‘six feet’ in height.
The longbow was a faster firing weapon than the mechanical crossbow and this was a testament to the skill and strength of highly trained longbowmen.
The longbow had a major impact during the Hundred Years War in the battles of Slury, Crecy, Poitiers, and Agincourt.
During these battles, the Longbow was used by large numbers of highly trained archers, packed into tight formations, who drew back the string of their longbows and fired a terrifying number of arrows simultaneously that would have rained down on the enemy.
The war hammer was used in the later medieval periods, there were two types of medieval Warhammer, the short and long Warhammer.
The Long Warhammer called a ‘maul’ was designed so that infantry soldiers could target knights and other mounted warriors. The Short Warhammer, on the other hand, was used by the mounted cavalry.
The Warhammer was a very effective weapon against mounted warriors, as it could be used to attack horses’ legs in order to trip them, bringing the mounted foe to the ground. Since mounted warriors often wore armor, the hammer was effective in striking against the armor and causing concussions even without piercing it.
The foot soldiers then used spikes to attack the felled horsemen and fight them at closer quarters. In contrast, the shorter war hammer was used by mounted soldiers.
The Medieval mace was a popular weapon in medieval times, it was mainly used by the cavalry but was probably an infantry weapon initially. The medieval mace weapon was a frightening-looking weapon and often associated with the medieval knight, especially in tournaments.
Maces were usually made from bronze but could be made from other metals. They were designed to be light-weight making them easier to wield.
Maces had many different head designs throughout the medieval period *the spiked or feather head designs are instantly recognizable, there were flanged, knobbed, or spiked mace heads. Sometimes the Medieval mace would have a spike sticking out of the end of the head. The morning Star was also a weapon that could be described as being a Medieval mace.
The mace weapon could be used for ceremonial purposes and in that event it could possibly be made from gold or silver.
One-handed military Flail Weapon
The one-handed military flail weapon was specifically designed as a combat weapon and was not used for any other purpose.
The one-handed flail weapon is instantly recognizable, you will have seen Medieval knights using this weapon in jousting competitions in books and movies, they were mainly used by knights and infantrymen.
The Ballista also known as the bolt thrower was an important medieval siege weapon that was used to fire bolts or stones for long distances.
A Battering ram was one of the most popular and commonly used medieval siege weapons and was used to break open the walls or gates of fortifications.
The Mangonel Siege weapon was a type of catapult used in the medieval period in siege warfare. Heavy projectiles were thrown with the help of Mangonel in order to harass or harm the troops defending themselves inside the protective walls of a castle or medieval city.
Siege towers were a special kind of medieval siege weapon whose main purpose was the transportation of attacking soldiers onto castle walls. For this purpose, the height of the siege tower was made roughly equal to the height of the castle wall.
The Trebuchet was a popular medieval siege weapon that was very effective in destroying castle walls, it was also known as the counterweight siege weapon, there was also an earlier medieval siege weapon called the Traction Trebuchet but this was not considered to be a proper Trebuchet and leads to some confusion.
The Warwolf was a siege engine used by English armies during the Scottish Wars of Independence. It was built on the orders of King Edward in 1304 as he laid siege to the Stirling Castle in Scotland.
The Warwolf is notable for the fact that it was the largest trebuchet ever built. In contemporary terms, it was the most formidable siege engine and virtually no castle wall could withstand stones that rained down on it from the Warwolf siege engine.
Spears were very popular medieval weapons, cheap, easy to construct, and very effective, take a long wooden pole and attach a variety of weapon heads! Spears were commonly used by foot-soldiers.
The Anglo-Saxon infantry used Spears effectively in battle
Pike is a weapon is similar to spears and other pole-arm weapons. A Pike weapon consists of a sharp spike that is attached to a very long wooden pole that is around *16 to 20 feet long and usually made of Ashwood.
Pikes were also known as long spears and used in special formations by medieval infantry that was very effective against cavalry. *In England foot-soldiers that used Pike weapons were called Pikemen.
*Medieval daggers were used mainly for stabbing and thrusting moves and were very effective in close combat situations. Daggers were usually pointed with two sharp edges.
Daggers were often used as emergency weapons and they were also very good at piercing gaps in medieval armor. A popular medieval Dagger in the 15th century was the Rondel Dagger in the image below.
The lance was similar to a spear, it had a long wooden shaft and a metalhead. Lances were used as serious weapons on the battlefield and also in medieval tournaments by Knights.
Medieval lances are also known as Lancing sticks, in some jousting contests even canes were used as lances!