Music has historically remained one of the most important ingredients of human societies. During the medieval times, a large number of musical instruments and traditions were in vogue which blended the ancient traditions with medieval themes.
The medieval musicians were scattered through towns and villages and broadly speaking, there were two main kinds of medieval musicians. The first was the travelling kind which wandered through towns and villages with their art and compositions.
The second kind was employed by royal courts that remained under the permanent patronage of the kings, although their rights could be revoked on the whims of the kings.
Jongleurs assisted minstrels and troubadours in their singing performances Read more about the Jongleur Medieval Musician >>
Minstrels were the favoured Musicians of Royalty in Medieval times Read more about the Medieval Minstrels >>
Trouvères Musician songs were usually lyrical and sung in French. Read more about the Medieval Trouvere Musicians >>
Troubadours were poets, storytellers and musicians, they sang ballads and courtly love songs Read more about the Troubadour Medieval Musicians >>
There were a variety of musical instruments prevalent during medieval times. The most common of these instruments were string, woodwind, and percussion instruments.
Other important musical instruments included adufe, rebec, gittern, cymbals, timbrel, lute etc. Similarly, organistrum was a popular instrument which consisted of strings vibrated by a circular bow or wheel.
Another popular instrument was bladder pipe which consisted of a reed enclosed by an animal bladder. The musician blew into the bladder through its mouthpiece and created sounds through the holes in the reed.
Sometimes a second pipe was used parallel to the first one. This medieval musical instrument is found in the illustrations of Cantigas de Santa Maria, which was a collection of sacred songs composed for the court of Alfonso el Sabio.
Medieval musicians used various themes in their songs and compositions. The most popular themes, carried over from the ancient times, were the ones celebrating heroes, gods, and love.
Themes of god and heroes were most popular among the northern Bards, also known as Skald. On the other hand, popular themes in the south of Europe mainly consisted of love and the accomplishments of the knights.
Medieval musicians employed by the royal courts also sang the praises of the kings and the royal traditions. During the middle and high medieval times, theological themes also became an important part of the musical compositions, even through the musicians were generally condemned by the Church and denied salvation.
The main reason behind the Church condemnation of medieval musicians was the fact that they bodily movements were an important part of their performance.
This included contortions, acrobatics, and other acts of physical dexterity which was considered obscene and evil by the clergy. As a result of condemnation by the Church, medieval musicians did not enjoy any noteworthy status in society.
They did not have any protection of law and their social status was little more than wandering gypsies. However, with the passage of time, the role of physical performance diminished in the medieval music and sole emphasis was put on the music itself.
The role of Church was important in eliminating the physical performance from medieval music. For instance, it was made clear by Peter Cantor that as long as musicians continued to include physical performance in their music, they had little chance of salvation.
However, if they would confine themselves to soothing and useful music, then they were not to be blamed. It was during the middle medieval times that more emphasis was put on spiritual and intellectual themes in music.
This came about in part through the contribution of famous theologians such as Thomas Aquinas who, under the influence of the works of Aristotle, demonstrated the legitimacy, and even necessity, of the jongleurs.
A very important influence on the medieval musicians during the middle medieval times was the European incursion into the East, which came about during the Crusades.
During these wars, Europe came into direct contact with the Islamic East and was introduced with a variety of new musical instruments and traditions.
This influence of foreign culture on medieval musicians sparked a new interest in elegant manners, innovative instruments, and profound poetry.
It was also during this time that the musical traditions of Troubadours, Trouveres and Minstrels became popular and music became a socially more acceptable profession.
Various kinds of medieval musicians included Troubadours, Trouveres, Minstrels, Jongleurs, and Waits. Troubadurs were mainly the travelling musicians who did not have any permanent abode.
The main themes employed by these musicians were chivalry and courtly love. Trouveres were the musicians who hailed from Northern France during the late medieval times and mainly consisted of musicians employed by royal court and nobles.
A paramount part of medieval music consisted of ballads and long poems derived from the ancient myths and legends which were sung by the musicians called Minstrels.
The musicians known as Jongleurs mainly acted as apprentices or assistants of Troubadours or Minstrels, and were mainly found in Northern France and Norman England.
A very special kind of medieval musicians was called Waits. These musicians were originally employed as watchmen to alert the people about impending dangers with their instruments.
At first, this role was confined to individual medieval musicians but with the passage of time, groups of Waits began to be employed by towns, mainly in England.
Their role also grew and they composed music for important ceremonies and events. During the high medieval times, the attitude of society had drastically altered in favour of musicians and even the Church started showing favours to them.
It was during this time that musicians were allowed to perform in the churches. Eventually, the formation of musician guilds in France in 1321 and in England in 1469 elevated the role of the medieval musicians into more respectable members of society.
Some of the most renowned names among the medieval musicians included Maestro Piero from Italy, John Hanboys from England, Guillaume de Machaut from France, Mönch von Salzburg from Germany, and Martinus Fabri from Holland.
These musicians were from the high medieval times when the traditions of music were expanding and music was becoming more acceptable as a profession.
While they hailed from different places all over Europe, the musician of Italy were considered foremost in their skills. It was the same traditions of medieval musicians which were eventually carried into Renaissance and early modern times.