This early medieval history period is also commonly known as the dark ages, there were what the Romans called Barbarian kingdoms in England.
Around c. 450 the angles, Saxons and Jutes were the main tribes that ruled Britain
Around c. 790 Vikings started to attack the coast of England and terrorized the English population for around 300 years with their constant brutal raids on England.
The Norman invasion in 1066 led to Norman rule and the feudal system was created in England, in around 1100 the Viking invasions stopped.
The following information describes this early part of medieval history time-line and list significant events that happened in the early medieval period of history.
The early middle ages, as the name suggest marked the beginning of this medieval period starting from the 5th century until the 10th.
Many significant events happened in this early medieval period that had a great impact on the later on for medieval people and greatly effected the quality of their lives, particularly in Europe where most of these advances took place, this created great wealth and power for the European elites and the general populations of Europe to a lesser extent.
Even though it is debated by some scholars, the first ever event of any significance during these times was the sacking of Rome by Alaric, the king of Visigoths. This event lead to the decline in the Western Roman Empire.
In almost more than 800 years, Rome fell into enemy hands, the last being in the hands of the Gauls and their leader Brennus in 387 BC just before the medieval period began.
The second more damaging attack that marked the end of the Roman Empire was in 455 when Rome was once more sacked by enemies, this time being Genseric, King of the Vandals.
In the year 507 the Visigoths retreated into Spain after being defeated in battle by The Franks which were under the rule of Clovis.
“The single most important and influential work in the West on Medieval and early Renaissance Christianity was written by Boethius in the year 524, called the Consolation of Philosophy“.
529 –The first ever monastery out of an eventual twelve was founded by Benedict of Nursia , beginning the Order of Saint Benedict.
532 – the city of Nika in Constantinople had major riots which lead to the city being half burned and tens of thousands of people killed.
535-554 – the Gothic War took place in Italy as part of the Justian Re-conquest in which the Byzantines re-took Italy but crippled their own economy and were forced to leave Italy unable to manage the oncoming Lombards.
570 – The great prophet Muhammad was born, he who shall bring forth the word of God which was written in the holy Qur’an, starting the basics of the Islamic theology which will lead into a new religion being born.
597 – with the arrival of Augustine in Kent Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons begins.
During the period of 602-629 the last great battles between the Romans and the Persians took place, near the end of the battles both armies are exhausted , especially with the forming of the United Arab Empires and their united Arab empires under the words of the Islam in the 630’s.
During this war, other significant deeds have happened, like the start of migration of the great prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, a great battle where the Persians were crushed versus the Byzantines under the lead of Heraclius.
632 – The prophet Muhammad dies leaving behind all of Arabia under the Muslim religion.
638 – The city of Jerusalem is captured by the Arab army which considered mostly Muslims and in the battle of Nehawand in
641 – the Muslims conquered all of Persia and in 643 it takes over Alexandria.
650 – The Slavs finish their occupation of the Balkan Peninsula.
674 – 678 The Arabs laid their first siege on the city of Constantinople in which they were defeated which lead to the forestalling of the Islamic Conquest of all of Europe.
681 – The Bulgarian Empire first appeared in 681.
698 – Byzantine rule is no more, due to the Arab army taking over the city Carthage.
711 – The first invasions by the Muslims, formed of Arabs and Berbers, happened in Spain which begin the rule of the Muslims in the Iberian peninsula which will last around the end of the fifteenth century.
The Muslims tried their luck again on the city of Constantinople in the year 718, but the merged forces of the Byzantines and Bulgarians held off the attack and managed to drive them off.
The battle of Tours in 732 was the decisive battle where Charles Martel held of the Muslim invaders which lead to the forming of the Carolingian Empire for the Franks and halted all advancement of the Moors in southwest Europe.
The father of the English history called Bede, died in the year of 735 on May the 25th. The third caliphate called Abbasid began in the year 750 which would grow up to be the longest lasting caliphate until 1519 when it would become combusted and annexed by the Ottoman Empire.
The first signs of the Viking age started out with the sacking of Lindisfarne where the Vikings attacked Britain.
768 the reign of Charlemagne began and in the year 800 he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor and had his kingdom recognized by the Papacy as the largest in Europe.
In the year 814, the reign of the Emperor Charlemagne ended with his death which would be the reason why only 30 years later the empire split up.
827 – Muslims invade Sicily and in 840 they capture Bari and much of Southern Italy.
A Viking state is formed in 862 by Rurik, first at Novgorod and then in Kiev. The great army of the Vikings arrived in England in 866 which lead to the territories of Northumbria, East Anglia and Mercia getting totally overwhelmed.
886 – The Cyrillic script was created by Saint Cyril and Methodi which would lead to a great spiritual and cultural age of the Eastern Orthodox part of the Slavic World.
Simeon I in 893 becomes ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in the Balkans.
“899 – the great king of England, Alfred the Great, dies”.
911 – The Viking Rollo and his tribe of Vikings settle in what is now Normandy founding the Duchy of Normandy.
917 – Simeon I defeats the Byzantines in the Battle of Anchialus near the river Anchialus, coast of the Black Sea.
919 – the first King of the Germans was elected, Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony marking the start of the Ottonian Dynasty.
The first king of the Croatians, King Tomislav (910-928) was crowned in year 925.
The kingdom of England was founded in 927 when King Aethelstan the Glorious united the heptarchy of the Anglo-Saxons nations.
927 – Simeon I the Great, ruler of Bulgaria dies. After the battle of Lechfeld in 955 where Otto the Great defeated the Magyar, he then gets crowned holy emperor of the Romans in 962.
969 – In the year 969 the last living emperors of the Byzantines, John I Tzimiskes and Nikephoros II are executed and the Sultane of Rums is proclaimed. Bazil II the co-emperor of John I Tzimiskes takes the sole power in 976 and in 981, after getting the nickname Bulgar Slayer, starts his conquest of Bulgaria which will end in 1018.
1016 – Canute the Great becomes King of England after the death of Edmund Ironside, with whom he shared the English throne.
Danes become rulers of England for the next 26 years before the last rise of the Anglo-Saxons before the Norman Conquest.
1018 – The Byzantines under Basil II conquer Bulgaria after a bitter 50-years struggle.
1018 – After 50 years of struggle Bazil II, the Byzantine emperor conquers Bulgaria.
1037 – The Great Seljuk Empire is founded by Tughril Beg which would become a major force in both crusades and an antagonist to the Byzantine Empire over the next century.
1050 – A tool called astrolabe is first used in Europe for navigation and was primarily used by navigators, astrologers and astronomers.
1071 – The Seljuk Empire is defeated the Byzantines In Manzikert and the Normans capture Bari which was the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy and marked the beginning of the end of all Byzantine grip of Asia Minor.
1077 – The famous Tower of London began construction and became the ultimate keep of the English Empire.
1088 – The famous university of Bologna was formed making it the oldest university in Europe.
1095 – Pope Urban gave an order which would begin the first out of nine holy crusades, which were ordered to capture the holy land and repel the Seljuk Turks from the Byzantine Empire.
1099 – The first holy crusade is successful and the city of Jerusalem is re-taken from the Muslims on the urging of Pope Urban II. This will lead to the start of the Kingdom of Jerusalem which will last nearly two centuries.