Late Medieval Period *1250 – 1485

  • 1258 brought the end of the Golden Islamic age with the fall of Baghdad under the Mongols.
  • 1282 – The Sicilians massacre the Angevins over a six-week period which marks the start of two decades of war.
  • 1296 – Marks the start of the first war of the Scottish Independence with the attack of Edward I of England on Scotland.
  • 1297 – The famous battle of the Sterling bridge took place in 1297 when William Wallace emerges as the leader of the Scottish resistance in England.
  • 1298 – The famous Marco Polo publishes his tales of China in the year 1298 which leads to an increase in trade between Europe and Asia.
  • 1299- marks the foundation of the Ottoman Empire by Osman which will last over 600 years and into the 20th century.
  • 1301 – Edward II became Prince of Wales.
  • 1314 – The start of the Bannockburn War
  • 1381 – The peasant revolt took place in which the peasants who wanted more freedom rebelled against the landowning Barons, led by Wat Tyler.
  • 1337 – Start of the hundred years War between England and France which actually lasted 116 years in total – both England and France would both struggle for a dominant position in Europe.
  • 1346 – The Battle of Crécy took place in the year 1346 where against all odds, being outnumbered 4 to 1 the English forces and their impressive longbowmen won against the massive French cavalry forces of Philip”.
  • 1347 – The black death spread across England wiping out a large proportion of the population and in doing so creating a shortage of peasant workers throughout the country. It is calculated that around 20-40% of the total population died within the first year.
  • 1381 – The bible is first translated into an English version by John Wycliffe.
  • 1386 – The older German university, the University of Heidelberg is formed.
  • 1389 – A decisive battle took place in Kosovo in the year 1389. The province under the rule of the Serbs was the battleground for the armies of Lazar and the armies of Sultan Murat, after the battle the Turkish empire continued to spread over the Balkans to finally reach Vienna.
  • 1396 – The year 1396 marked the last crusade in which combined forces lost in the battle of the castle Nicopolis, leading to the end of the second Bulgarian Empire and the victory of the Ottoman empire.
  • 1397 – The Kalmar Union in Europe is formed in 1397 when Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, and this lasts until 1523.
  • 1402 – A decisive battle started in 1402 with the defeat of Bayezid I at the battle of Ankara which lead to an Ottoman civil war by the sons of the fallen king.
  • 1415 – In the year 1415 the English win a very outnumbered battle due to their English longbow which will lead to the signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which will be signed 5 years later making Henry V heir of France.
  • 1429 –  the famous Joan of Arc lifts the siege of Orleans for the Dauphin of France which will then enable him to be crowned at Reims and will later drive out the English from the center of Europe.
  • 1431 – Joan of Arc faces trial and was executed, she was a woman who helped the French win the war.
  • 1439 “The first-ever printing press was invented by the man called Johannes Gutenberg in 1439”.
  • 1444 – A decisive battle took place where the polish armies lost against the Ottomans and lost king Wladyslaw III of Poland lost his life.
  • 1435 – After many battles, in 1453 the city of Constantinople falls under the Ottoman Turks which will lead to the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the city became the capital of the Ottomans.
  • 1453 – The hundred-years war ended with a major victory by the French where all previously held territories by the English were lost.
  • 1455 – was the start of the war of the roses when Henry VI was king.
  • 1456 – The battle for the city of Belgrade took place in 1456 and the Ottomans lost the battle due to the strategically advanced capabilities of the commander of the Serbian and Hungarian armies.
  • 1459 – Smederevo falls under the Turks and marks the end of the Medieval Serbian Empire.
  • 1485 – The Battle of Bosworth takes place and this event signals the end of the medieval period
  • 1492 – In the year 1492, the campaign Reconquista ends and ends the rule of Moors/Muslims over the Iberian peninsula, and later Spain and Portugal united.
  • 1492 The famous Christopher Columbus reaches the New World in 1492 which starts the Age of Discovery