The late Medieval Period of History started off with a few battles but the most significant part is when the very famous Dante publishes his Divine Comedy, a comedy of “divine” proportions which will define the very means of literature of those times.
1301 – Edward II became Prince of Wales.
1314 – The start of the Bannockburn War
1381 – The peasants revolt took place in which the peasants who wanted more freedom rebelled against the landowning Barons, led by Wat Tyler.
1337 – Start of the hundred years War between England and France which actually lasted 116 years in total – both England and France would both struggle for a dominant position in Europe.
The Battle of Crécy took place in the year 1346 where against all odds, being outnumbered 4 to 1 the English forces and their impressive longbow men won against the massive French cavalry forces of Philip”.
1347 – The black death spread across England wiping out a large proportion of the population and in doing so created a shortage of peasant workers throughout the country. It is calculated that around 20-40% of total population died within the first year.
1381 – The bible is first translated to an English version by John Wycliffe.
1386 – The older German university, the University of Heidelberg is formed.
A decisive battle took place in Kosovo in the year 1389. The province under the rule of the Serbs was the battleground for the armies of Lazar and the armies of Sultan Murat, after the battle the Turkish empire continued to spread over the Balkans to finally reach Vienna.
The year 1396 marked the last crusade in which a combined forces lost in the battle of the castle Nicopolis, leading to the end of the second Bulgarian Empire and victory of the Ottoman empire.
The Kalmar Union in Europe is formed in 1397 where Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Denmark, Sweden and Norway and this lasts until 1523.
A decisive battle started in 1402 with the defeat of Bayezid I at the battle of Ankara which lead to an Ottoman civil war by the sons of the fallen king.
In the year 1415 the English win a very outnumbered battle due their English longbow which will lead to the signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which will be signed 5 years later making Henry V heir of France.
In the year 1429 the famous Joan of Arc lifts the siege of Orleans for the Dauphin of France which will then enable him to be crowned at Reims and will later drive out the English from the center of Europe.
In 1431 Joan of Arc faces trial and was executed, she was a woman who helped the French win the war.
“The first ever printing press was invented by the a man called Johannes Gutenberg in 1439”.
1444 – A decisive battle took place where the polish armies lost against the Ottomans and lost the king Wladyslav III of Poland lost his life.
After many battles, in 1453 the city of Constantinople falls under the Ottoman Turks which will lead to the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the city became capital of the Ottomans.
1453 – The hundred year war ends with major victory by the French where all previously held territories by the English were lost.
1455 – was the start of the war of the roses when Henry VI was king.
The battle for the city of Belgrade took place in 1456 and the Ottomans lost the battle due to strategically advanced capabilities of the commander of the Serbian and Hungarian army.
In 1459 Smederevo falls under the Turks and marks the end of Medieval Serbian Empire.
In the year 1492 the campaign Reconquista ends and ends the rule of Moors/Muslims over the Iberian peninsula and later Spain and Portugal unite.
“The famous Christopher Columbus reaches the New World in 1492 which starts the Age of Discovery”.
The last 10 years of the 15th century provide events which will lead to the beginning of the 16th century. Events such as the Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494 where they agree to divide the world outside of Europe between themselves.
The Italian wars happen during 1494 and 1559 in which a major downfall of the Italian states will occur.
The now famous Vasco De Gama was the first European explorer to sail directly to Eastern Asia from Europe in the year 1497 and the first ever naval battle which had cannons on the ships was between the Ottoman and Venetians in the Battle of Zonchio in 1499.
The late Medieval period ended around 1500 with the Renaissance period of history.
The Medieval period came to an end towards the end of the 15th century and is considered to be the dawn of modern times, the beginnings of what we know today, This period of European history when the Medieval Period came to an end is mainly referred to as the great Renaissance and was a time of great social and cultural change in Europe and across the world.