Medieval Chronicles - Discover our medieval past in hundreds of factual, informative and easy to understand articles. See how the medieval times looked by clicking on any of the hundreds of images available or use the drop down menu in the menu bar to see all the medieval categories that are available. We have all the information you need about the places, events and daily lives of medieval people from the lowly peasant to the most famous Kings and Queens of medieval times.
The medieval times of our history was packed with amazing Kings, Knights, events, inventions, peoples, battles and wars etc that shaped future generations and led to many advancements in our civilisation.
There were some very dark periods in medieval times such as the Spainish inquisitions, Black Death and the gruesome medieval torture techniques that were inflicted on many victims in medieval castle dungeons. We have chronicled the good and bad periods of medieval times equally hopefully leaving no stone unturned in our quest to accurately chronicle our medieval past.
Learn about medieval rulers who controlled medieval society, Medieval nobility helped the king control peasants and commoners Read more about the Medieval People >>
Formidable Medieval Castles were constructed across England and Europe to protect Royalty and Nobility from their enemies and outside threats Read more about the Medieval Castles >>
All kinds of medieval weapons such as swords and siege weapons were being developed as battles raged across medieval Europe Read more about the Medieval Weapons >>
Armor and shields improved as medieval technology improved, earlier medieval armor and shields were no match for later designs Read more about the Medieval Armour & Shields >>
There were many brutal wars throughout medieval times such as the Battle of Hastings, the quality of weaponry and armour were deciding factors Read more about the Medieval Battles & Wars >>
Medieval clothing made big advancements during medieval times from the basic materials used such as wool due to the discovery of new materials Read more about the Medieval Clothing >>
The legendary Medieval Knights favourite weapon was the sword, it had special meaning to them and they lived their lives by the Code of Chivalry Read more about the Medieval Knights >>
Medieval Music was very important to medieval people and they loved to be entertained by all types of musicians like Troubadours Read more about the Medieval Music >>
Torture devices were designed to cause maximum pain to the victim, gruesome and usually caused death Read more about the Medieval Torture Devices >>
There were many types of Medieval swords such as Arming swords, Shortswords, Longswords and Broadswords Read more about the Medieval Swords >>
Medieval Food was organic and people ate a natural diet of meat, fish, vegetables and berries. Medieval people usually drank water or ale Read more about the Medieval Food >>
Medieval life was much easier if you were lucky enough to be a nobleman, knight or even a King, Medieval life for peasants was usually hard Read more about the Medieval Life >>
Medieval history spanned around one thousand years from the late 4th century until around the end of the 15th century. Read more about the Medieval Times History >>
Gothic and Byzantine Art were popular in medieval times as were other forms of art and architecture, most medieval art could be seen in the church Read more about the Medieval Art >>
Medieval Europe was in a constant state of warfare, some of the most powerful Medieval countries in Europe were England, France, Spain and Italy Read more about the Medieval Europe >>
Medieval Kings ruled over the people in medieval times, in 1066 the feudal system was introduced which further consolidated the power of medieval kings. Read more about the Medieval Kings >>
The most famous Crusades of medieval times were the first four crusades to the Holy Lands. Read more about the The Crusades >>
In medieval times people belonged to different classes and had different social status. Kings ruled large parts of the land and ruled by the belief that the land belonged to God and kings had the divine right to manage the land and use it as they wished.
Vassals ruled and maintained the lands that were granted to them by the medieval kings. Kings gave land to others in medieval times in order to protect their land without much effort, in return vassals promised to defend the King’s land and trained armies for this purpose.
The medieval manors were ruled by the local lords or the vassals and the serfs could not leave the area without the lord’s approval. Whereas other servants in the peasant class worked in the lord’s house and did chores such as cooking, laundering, cleaning and other household chores.
Page Boys became Squires around the age of fourteen years, during this time their development became more intense, training with weapons would be harder and they would participate in fighting on the horseback.
Medieval priests provided spiritual guidance to medieval people and organized religious ceremonies in local churches, whereas monks and nuns used to give up ordinary lives and settled in monasteries and convents, devoting their lives to help poor people.
Different kinds of weapons were used in medieval times which ranged from simple tools, which could be controlled with a single hand to very complex and sophisticated devices.
Medieval times weapons included swords, blunt or cleaving weapons, spears, pole axes, ranged weapons, siege weapons and weapons used in fortifications such as castles and city walls.
Other commonly known types of ranged weapons used in medieval times were
Armour was used to gain body protection from various weapons of warfare which could be encountered on the battlefield.
Prior to the development of suits of armor, combinations of padded garments and chain mail were widely used.
Medieval shields were another form of protection that was used by the knights in the medieval times.
Throughout the middle ages the design of shields varied according to the requirement of the battlefield, but normally shields were in the form of a protective covering or structure.
Medieval shield designs changed with the passage of time as different types of body protection and weapons evolved with new ideas and technology being introduced.
The medieval times was a very violent period in English history because many brutal battles and wars were fought in that era. For example many battles were fought between the Christians and Muslims on the issue of the Holy Lands during the Crusades.
There were many extraordinary battles during the middle ages one of the most famous medieval wars called “the hundred years war” although it actually lasted 116 Years!
As the medieval period progressed there were dramatic changes in not only the warfare tactics used but the advancement of weapons and armor – usually the most dominate armies had the most advanced weapons, armor, and best trained knights.
Although battles and wars in medieval times were full of violence and were bloodthirsty affairs, they also led to developments of better warfare technology, weaponry and armor as well as progression in both offensive and defensive strategies and structures.
These wars and battles also had a great impact on the overall economies of medieval Europe and the culture and social life of the common man.
The Medieval times brought many changes to the lives of the people because it was an era in which the clothing of the people was revolutionized.
The tailoring industry was born in medieval times, when fashion was introduced and adopted by common medieval people.
Similarly the medieval clothing and outfits of women of medieval times were sophisticated, stylish and classy.
Medieval times clothing was highly dominated by the upper class of the medieval times and a peasant womans dress would be simple, itchy, rough and scratchy in contrast to the luxurious clothing worn by medieval royals and nobility.
The wardrobe of a medieval peasant woman included a free fitting long gown and a linen wrap to cover the hair. Married women wore tight-fitting caps and nets over their hair while other women wore veils over their hair.
The common medieval people would wear simple dresses, but also tended to adopt new trends and medieval fashions to get warmth and comfort from what they wore.
The quality of clothes and their attire truly depended on their social standing. Even in the modern world certain styles are inspired from the Medieval times clothing.
Medieval Knights history can be traced all the way back to around the year 800
In this era of medieval warfare a medieval knights’ role was dominant because of their strength, influence and power, indeed a medieval knight can be thought of as the battle tank of his day, able to take out a large number of foot soldiers on his own.
In Medieval Times it was not an easy to become a Knight and most came from families of the nobility – one could earn the title by either fighting bravely on the battlefield or by becoming an apprentice to a knight – a pageboy and then a Squire – and by earning the title through years of devotion and hard work.
The Knight was expected not only to be brave and fearless, but also courteous and generous. One of the most famous knights in medieval times history was the Knight Sir Lancelot, who was the good friend of the legendary King Arthur and part of a famous group of legendary knights known as “The Knights of the Round Table”.
In the later Medieval Times, Medieval Knights became less importance because of a change in warfare tactics and the introduction of the new weapons such as longbows and ‘gunpowder weapons’ which could penetrate a knights armor
Nobleman and Knights were also very important people in medieval times and it was important for Kings/Queens to have a good relationship with them as they often needed to be defended from enemies by the armies that the nobleman controlled.
Nobility were expected to be productive and contribute to the medieval system, they provided the soldiers that would fight for the King and also made sure that back up equipment for the kings armies such as clothes and weapons were always available.
The UK and Europe is Home to thousands of castles once inhabited by lords, knights and nobles. The Castles of the United Kingdom have a lot of secret tales to tell. Most of these castles have survived the test of time, exuding the brilliant fragrance of history from bloody battles and political conspiracies to ghosts and family heirlooms.
Edinburgh castles fame is augmented by the presence of the crown jewels and, together with Stirling Castle, has a place in the famous list in Scotland and in all of UK.
Other famous UK castles are St. Michael’s Mount, Warwick Castle and Tower of London just to name a few. St. Michael’s Mount is situated on a rocky island just a little ways off from the South of London. A 12th century Benedictine monastery stands on a nearby hill where people make a pilgrimage each year.
The Tower of London is an imposing structure that has stood for more than a thousand years. Much like Edinburgh Castle, it protects and safeguards the English crown jewels at present. The castle used to be a famous executioner’s den and torture chamber. Three queens, including Henry the VIII second wife, was beheaded here.
UK castles do not only exemplify great architecture and impressive engineering. They have also contributed to British culture, encouraging today’s generation to explore the past and learn from it.
The medieval times had so much to offer in terms of its rich and sophisticated music. Medieval Music was obviously part of the world civilizations for hundreds of years, the only difference was that medieval music was regulated by the church. Sacred and secular compositions of the music were most dominant because of the involvement of the Catholic Church in the middle ages.
The whole concept of medieval music included music, instruments, poetry and art. During the Medieval Times the following were the best known medieval musicians who were also poets and story tellers.
The importance of Medieval music in medieval times can be judged by looking at medieval art such as medieval paintings; one can clearly see Angels playing organs, harps, shawms and trumpets amongst other medieval instruments.
One of the most important aspects of medieval music was the written-down notations and composer attributions that were introduced for the first time.
Medieval times contain two types of medieval music
One was called “monophonic music” also known as “Plain chant” or “Gregorian Chant”. This was the music of the Christian church and contained single line melodies that we sung by medieval monks.
Surviving monophonic scripts include:
The second type was called “polyphonic music” that contained multiple melodic lines sung and played simultaneously.
Medieval music also had an important role in the theater and army, but it was initially introduced for learning and education of young people.
There were many torture devices in medieval times that were used for different punishments and were granted for different crimes.
The brazen bull torture device was a Greek device used to torture the criminals till death by heating them alive. It was one of the most gruesome methods of executing criminals during the medieval times.
Then there was also such torture devices as the thumb screw that was supposedly a Russian device and had three upright metal bars between which thumbs were placed and a screw was used to press the wooden bar in a downward direction and as a result the victims thumb was crushed.
The Breaking wheel (also named the Catherine wheel in later medieval times) was also a very nasty middle ages torture device. The victim was tied to the breaking wheel and it was rolled down a rocky hill. Later a wooden frame was introduced to the wheel was so it could move more freely – The breaking wheel could also be set on alight or metal spikes added for addition pain.
During the Medieval Times victims were also burned at the stake where they were burned to death. Many heretics (non believers of the Christian faith) were burned at stake.
Another Medieval Times torture device was the pillory in which a set of wooden boxes were clasped together to provide holes for the neck and the hands. These boxes were opened and victim’s neck and hands were placed inside them. It was mostly used to humiliate the victim.
Other Medieval times torture devices such as the breast ripper was used to torture women. It was a metal claw that pierced and shredded the breaded to pieces after the victim was tied to a wall.
The Medieval swords was the weapon of choice in medieval times, knights in particular loved their medieval swords
Medieval Swords were especially favored by the medieval Knight – during medieval times two types of swords were mostly used. One was pointed and small with sharp blades and could be controlled by a single hand (the short sword). Whereas the other type of sword had a rounded end and was long with sharp edges and was controlled with both hands (the long sword).
In the latter part of the medieval period swords became stouter and more sharply pointed in a way to create more thrust towards the opponent and were better for penetrating the gaps in a knights armor.
There were many different types of Medieval Times Swords. The most famous among these swords was the Falchion sword, which was a one-handed single edged sword of European origin.
The Arming sword or ‘Knightly sword’ as it was also known was the most used sword in the high middle ages – The Knightly sword was a single handed, straight and double edged weapon. Its blade was 70 to 80 meters in length.
The longsword was popular in the late middle ages and it was controlled with both hands. It was a straight and double edged sword and blade’s length was between 85 and 110 cm.
The Claymore sword was the Scottish version of the longsword and was used in the later part of medieval times.
During medieval times eating habits and the type of food did not change too much over the period.
In the early part of the medieval period, cereals were probably the most important staples. Poor medieval people such as serfs ate oats, rye and barley – they used these ingredients to make bread, gruel, porridge and pasta, whereas the governing class used wheat for this purpose. The lower classes also used Fava beans and vegetables as supplements for their cereal based diet.
Long distance trading of food in medieval times was very expensive because the transportation was very slow and food preservation techniques were not developed, only based on drying, pickling, smoking and salting. Due to this reason the food of the nobility’ was under foreign influences, whereas the food of poor people was not affected as much, if at all.
Meat was considered a prestigious food in medieval times and was therefore a more expensive food item, it was mainly eaten by nobility. Beef was not very common as it required greater investment in land. More common forms of meat were pork, chicken and domestic fowl.
The Northern populations also consumed cod and herrings. Fish was eaten as dried, smoked or salted and was also popular further inland. Other species of freshwater and saltwater fish were also eaten as part of the food.
The medieval period spanned from the end of the Roman empire around 500AD to just before the renaissance period around 1500AD.
The feudal system began in the latter part of medieval times as the national monarchies of England, France and Spain emerged.
During the medieval times Christianity emerged as the main religion of Europe and the idea of considering Europe as a large church-state emerged right after the fall of the Roman Empire. The Pope was the strongest person in medieval times and held immense power during this period.
The 12th century is remembered as the century when an economic revival took place in Europe. New towns were developed and people enjoyed a better, safer life with speed of communications also improved.
The ‘Black Death’ took the lives of millions of people in the 14th century is considered one of the most important events of medieval history.
After the fall of Roman Empire, medieval art took shape that was not only different from the artistic heritage of the Roman Empire, but also from the iconic tradition of the early Christian church.
Medieval times art can be seen as the mixture of the classical, early Christian and Barbarian art. Historians have divided medieval times art into different groups based on styles and periods
Medieval times art was produced in almost all types of medium at that time. The most prominent of these styles were sculptures, metal works, stained glass, fresco wall paintings, mosaics, tapestry and work in precious metals or textiles.
In the earlier Middle Ages decorative arts were more famous and highly valued as compared to medieval paintings. Decorative arts were also classed as “minor arts” and included work such as metal work, enamel, ivory craving and embroidery using precious metals.
Another notable thing about medieval art was the realistic depiction of the objects. After the end of the Medieval period, the Renaissance rejected medieval art and termed it as “Gothic” art and as a product of the “dark ages”.
During medieval times medieval kings were one of the most important an d powerful people in medieval society.
A special religious ceremony commonly known as a “coronation” was arranged in which the new king was crowned by a Pope or a Bishop of the Christian church. To indicate the kings right to rule, and they were often consecrated with holy oil.
Being crowned king was not an easy task, a king had to manage the whole kingdom during later medieval periods when the kingdoms were not divided by smaller tribes. Moreover kings had to spend a lot of time making sure that their court, lords etc. remained loyal to them.
Medieval times produced both good and bad Kings. Some Kings were much more generous to their people and others brought shame to their land and people.
At that time the king was a lawmaker and everyone was bound to obey him because of his power which was supported by the nobles and lords loyal to him.
King Arthur was a legendary figure in early medieval times but was he even a real person? he is believed to have won no less than twelve battles in the 5th century and is considered by many to be the greatest king of England.
William the Conqueror (1028-1087) defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and brought his form or feudalism to these lands which changed the course of our history.
Richard the Lion heart (1157-1195) was the favorite son of Eleanor of Aquitaine and a central figure of the third crusades which lasted hundreds of years as the Christians tried to recapture the holy lands and the city of Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks.
During medieval times military expeditions were very common and known as the crusades. The crusades were a series of Holy wars launched by the Christians against the Muslims who were in control of Jerusalem at various times during the medieval period.
Crusades were normally launched to take control of any area or to achieve a specific goal. The First crusade was launched by the Christian Pope to reclaim the Holy lands from the Muslim conquerors. The expedition was successful and the Christians captured the Jerusalem in 1095. After the victory the Christians set up several Latin Christian states.
During the medieval times a total of nine crusades were initiated after different intervals of time. The first four crusades were known as the Principal Crusades and were the most important and historical most discussed amongst historians.
The remaining four Crusades were called the Minor Crusades, including a less significant expedition called Children’s crusade which was started by a French child and ended in total disaster for all the children involved.
This was the era in which the Crusades and the Orders of Religious Knights including the Knights Templar, the Teutonic Knights and the Hospitallers became famous because of their power, strength, fight to the death attitude and battlefield skills.
The crusades not only provoked the voyages of discovery, but they also affected the wealth and power of the Catholic Church along with their social effects on the common people of medieval Europe.
To summarize the fact it is clear that all of the crusades failed to achieve their defined goals permanently, however the influence that they had created extended over more lands than just the Holy Land.
Medieval times architecture can be broadly divided into three different types that are religious architecture, military architecture and civic architecture, whereas into three different styles Pre-Romanesque architecture, Romanesque architecture and Gothic architecture.
Religious architecture – The Latin cross plan developed over the years with its primary model of a Roman basilica. The basic architecture included a nave, altar stands to the east and transepts. Justinian I commissioned the cathedrals in the Byzantine style of domes with a Greek cross that resembled a plus sign. In this type of architecture sanctuary was on the east side of the church and it also contained an altar.
Civic architecture was either of the military or religious type and included town halls, manor houses, bridges and also residential houses. Medieval times architecture can be divided into Pre-Romanesque, Early Christian, Romanesque architecture, Russian church architecture, Norse Architecture, including Ottonian, Merovingian, Asturian and Carolingian.
Early medieval architecture was religious and secular as well. The palace of Santa María del Naranco in pre-Romanesque Spain is an example of such architecture. The Romanesque style of Medieval architecture included the style of architecture of buildings that were mostly constructed in the 11th and 12th centuries.
After Roman Imperial architecture the Romanesque style was the first pan European style.
In Romanesque style of architecture round or slightly pointed arches were used along with barrel vaults, and cruciform piers that supported these vaults. Gothic style of medieval architecture also emerged during the 11th and 12th centuries.
The most first example of such style of architecture was the 12th century abbey church of Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis near Paris. Cathedrals were taller and because of competition and the prestige of image and power new churches/cathedrals were built as high as possible.
The medieval times are also commonly known as the middle ages and the dark ages, this medieval period started around the end of the 4th century and lasted approximately one thousand years with the collapse of the roman empire up until late into the 15th century, it came to an end with the beginning of the great renaissance period around 1492.
There was so much going on in medieval times in fact that historians decided to split the medieval times into three distinct periods to make all the information easier to manage. These medieval periods are called the early, high and late medieval periods.
It is important to understand how society operated in medieval times, people were organized into a medieval feudal system where the wealthiest in society also tended to be the most important and powerful people who made all the rules.
At the very top levels of medieval society were Popes, Kings and Queens. The majority of medieval people were poor and did not have much wealth, these people made up the main population in medieval times and they had different roles, there were also knights, military men, tradesmen, merchants, peasants etc. who all contributed to the make-up of medieval society.
The Pope could also make a judgment against a King/Queen, Intervene and even impose sanctions on any King or Queen that was considered to be unjust.
In medieval times people were highly religious and believed that God was all powerful, the Pope and Church were deemed to be the servants of God and ‘medieval people’ believed that they were carrying out instructions directly from God – this allowed the Clergy to become very powerful and they along with Royalty and Nobility, who were the most powerful people within the Feudal system which was brought to England by the Normans during the Norman conquests.
The Pope was so powerful in medieval society that he could literally excommunicate a king, this basically meant that all communication to that person could be stopped and would lead to the king becoming an outcast.
In medieval England this was very significant because being outcast by the church was a major thing that meant you would be unable to communicate with friends and family because they could turn their back on you if you did not belong to the Catholic Church.